Study of Bioaccumulation, Hematological Parameters, and Antioxidant Responses of Carassius auratus gibelio Exposed to Dietary Lead and Bacillus subtilis
- 110 Downloads
Lead (Pb) is one of the most ubiquitous and toxic elements in the aquatic environment. Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is a widely used probiotic in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to explore the toxic effects on bioaccumulation, hematological parameters, and antioxidant responses of Carassius auratus gibelio (C. gibelio) exposed to dietary lead at 0, 120, and 240 mg/kg and/or B. subtilis at 109 cfu/g. At 15 and 30 days, the fish were sampled and bioaccumulation, hematological parameters, and antioxidant responses were assessed. The result showed that B. subtilis administration can provide a significant protection against lead toxicity by reducing lead bioaccumulation in tissues, increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity, recovering δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and optimizing the hematological parameters. Our results suggested that administration of B. subtilis (109 cfu/g) has the potential to combat dietary lead toxicity in C. gibelio.
KeywordsAntioxidant responses Bacillus subtilis Bioaccumulation Lead
The work was supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundational of China (no.30972191) and the 948 Program from Ministry of Agriculture of China (no.2014Z34).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Jilin Agricultural University with ID no. 20121008. All subjects signed their informed consents before participation.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Adeyeye EI, Akinyugha NJ, Fesobi ME, Tenabe VO (1996) Determination of some metals in Clarias gariepinus, (Cuvier and Vallenciennes), Cyprinus carpio (L.) and Oreochromis niloticus (L.) fishes in a polyculture fresh water pond and their environments. Aquaculture 147(3–4):205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Dai J, Zhang L, Du X, Zhang P, Li W, Guo X,Yue H (2018) Effect of lead on antioxidant ability and immune responses of crucian carp. Biol Trace Elem Res 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1316-z
- 12.Mason LH, Harp JP, Han DY (2014) Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity. Biomed Res Int 2014:840547Google Scholar
- 14.Agrawal S, Flora G, Bhatnagar P, Flora SJ (2014) Comparative oxidative stress, metallothionein induction and organ toxicity following chronic exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury in rats. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 60(2):13–21Google Scholar
- 18.Chilsom JJ Jr (1990) Evaluation of the potential role of chelation therapy in treatment of low to moderate lead exposures. Environ Health Perspect 89(89):67Google Scholar
- 20.Hotel ACP, Cordoba A (2001) Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. Prevention 5(1):1–10Google Scholar
- 23.Yan FJ, Tian XL, Dong SL, Fang ZH, Yang G (2014) Growth performance, immune response, and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus, infection in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, fed a supplementary diet of the potential probiotic Paracoccus marcusii DB11. Aquaculture 420-421(2):105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Denniswall JC, Culpepper T, Jr NC, Rowe CC, Burns AM, Rusch CT (2017) Probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri ks-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum g9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum mm-2) improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 105(3):758–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Mousa HM, Al-Qarawi AA, Ali BH, Abdel Rahman HA, Elmougy SA (2002) Effect of lead exposure on the erythrocytic antioxidant levels in goats. Transbound Emerg Dis 49(10):531Google Scholar
- 38.Chan HWS (1987) Autoxidation of unsaturated lipids. Autoxidation of unsaturated lipids. Academic Press 1987:384-384Google Scholar
- 40.Lee S, Katya K, Park Y, Won S, Seong M, Hamidoghli A (2016) Comparative evaluation of dietary probiotics Bacillus subtilis WB60 and Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC3928 on the growth performance, immunological parameters, gut morphology and disease resistance in Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Fish Shellfish Immunol 61:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar