Impact of the Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Administration on Trace Element and Mineral Levels in Relation of Kidney and Liver Damage in Rats

  • Duygu Aydemir
  • Gözde Karabulut
  • Gülsu Şimşek
  • Muslum Gok
  • Nurhayat Barlas
  • Nuriye Nuray Ulusu


Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used synthetic polymer in the industry. DEHP may induce reproductive and developmental toxicity, obesity, carcinogenesis and cause abnormal endocrine function in both human and wildlife. The aim of this study was to investigate trace element and mineral levels in relation of kidney and liver damage in DEHP-administered rats. Therefore, prepubertal male rats were dosed with 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day of DEHP. At the end of the experiment, trace element and mineral levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities were evaluated in the serum, liver, and kidney samples of rats. Furthermore, serum clinical biochemistry parameters, organ/body weight ratios and histological changes were investigated to evaluate impact of DEHP more detailed. Our data indicated that sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), lithium (Li), rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs) levels significantly decreased, however iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) concentrations significantly increased in DEHP-administered groups compared to the control in the serum samples. On the other hand, upon DEHP administration, selenium concentration, G6PD and GR activities were significantly elevated, however 6-PGD activity significantly decreased compared to the control group in the kidney samples. Decreased G6PD activity was the only significant change between anti-oxidant enzyme activities in the liver samples. Upon DEHP administration, aberrant serum biochemical parameters have arisen and abnormal histological changes were observed in the kidney and liver tissue. In conclusion, DEHP may induce liver and kidney damage, also result abnormalities in the trace element and mineral levels.


Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Trace elements and minerals, serum biochemical parameters Glutathione metabolism enzymes Liver and kidney histology 



This research was supported by Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Hacettepe University (Project number is 1183). Also, the authors gratefully acknowledge the use of the services and facilities of the Koc University Research Center for Translational Medicine (KUTTAM), equally funded by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Development Research Infrastructure Support Program. Findings, opinions or points of view expressed in this article do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the Ministry of Development.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Medicine, Department of Medical BiochemistryKoc UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Department of BiologyDumlupınar UniversityKütahyaTurkey
  3. 3.Koç University Surface Science and Technology Center (KUYTAM)IstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical BiochemistryHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  5. 5.Faculty of Science, Department of BiologyHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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