High Concentration of Fluoride Can Be Increased Risk of Abortion

  • Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam
  • Mahmood Yousefi
  • Ahmad Khosravi
  • Mehdi Yaseri
  • Amir Hossein Mahvi
  • Mostafa Hadei
  • Ali Akbar Mohammadi
  • Zahrasadat Robati
  • Adel Mokammel


The presence of fluoride in drinking water can be either beneficial or harmful for human health, depending on its concentration. Most adverse effects of fluoride are observed at high concentrations (above 1.5 mg/L). This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of fluoride concentrations in drinking water on spontaneous abortion in two regions: one with low fluoride concentration and another with high fluoride concentration. The results showed that there is a relationship between the concentration of fluoride in drinking water and abortion, so that the risk of abortion increased at high concentrations of fluoride. However, further studies are needed to clarify this relationship due to the small area and population in this study.


Fluoride Drinking water Abortion Iran 



The authors want to thank authorities of the Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences for their comprehensive support for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam
    • 1
  • Mahmood Yousefi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ahmad Khosravi
    • 4
  • Mehdi Yaseri
    • 5
  • Amir Hossein Mahvi
    • 2
    • 6
  • Mostafa Hadei
    • 2
  • Ali Akbar Mohammadi
    • 1
  • Zahrasadat Robati
    • 3
  • Adel Mokammel
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health EngineeringNeyshabur University of Medical SciencesNeyshaburIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  3. 3.Students Research CommitteeNeyshabur University of Medical SciencesNeyshaburIran
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthBirjand University of Medical ScienceBirjandIran
  5. 5.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthArdabil University of Medical SciencesArdabilIran

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