Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 183, Issue 1, pp 58–70 | Cite as

Statistical Evaluation of Trace Metals, TSH and T4 in Blood Serum of Thyroid Disease Patients in Comparison with Controls

  • Sidra Hanif
  • Asim Ilyas
  • Munir H. Shah


The present study is based on the measurement of concentrations of selected trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb) and thyroid hormones (TSH and T4) in blood serum of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients in comparison with healthy donors/controls in order to establish the imbalances of the trace metals in diseased subjects. The serum samples were digested in HNO3-HClO4 mixture and quantification of the metals was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Average levels of Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb and TSH were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the serum of hypothyroid patients compared with other donor categories, while mean concentrations of Mn, Cd and T4 were significantly elevated in the serum of hyperthyroid patients compared with other donor groups (p < 0.05). The correlation pattern of trace metals in the serum of patient groups revealed significantly different mutual associations compared with the controls. PCA and CA pointed out the interferences of the toxic metals with essential metals in the serum of both patient groups compared with the controls. Most of the metals exhibited noticeable disparities in their concentrations based on gender, food habits and tobacco use for all donor groups. Thus, the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases is significantly affecting the essential trace and toxic metals balance in both patients groups.


Trace metal Thyroid diseases Blood serum Statistical analysis AAS Pakistan 



We are grateful to the administrations of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan for their invaluable help during the sample collection. Technical and financial help by the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan to execute this project is also acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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