Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 183, Issue 1, pp 92–101 | Cite as

Analysis and Risk Assessment of Seven Toxic Element Residues in Raw Bovine Milk in China

  • Xue-Yin Qu
  • Nan Zheng
  • Xue-Wei Zhou
  • Song-Li Li
  • Jia-Qi Wang
  • Wen-Ju Zhang


The object of this study is to analyze the levels of seven toxic elements residues in raw bovine milk in China and assess the potential health risk of those residues. The 178 raw bovine milk samples were collected from eight main milk-producing provinces and from three types of milk stations in China, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and nickel (Ni) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Al, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cr, and As were detected in 47.8, 29.2, 28.1, 23.6, 12.4, and 9.0% of total milk samples, respectively, and Cd were not detected in all samples. The raw bovine milk samples with high levels of toxic elements were found in industrial areas, such as Heilongjiang and Shanxi. Nemerow pollution index analysis showed that the levels were lower in the samples from the processing plants than that from the large-scale farms and small farm cooperatives. The margin of exposure (MOE) values suggest that the levels of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Al, and Ni in the raw milk samples are not causing a health risk for Chinese consumers, including adults and children. Nevertheless, the risk of Pb for infant and young children was more serious than adult.


Raw bovine milk Toxic elements ICP-MS Risk assessment China 



This study was supported by special fund for agro-scientific research in the public interest (201403071), The Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP-IAS12).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017
Corrected publication August/2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xue-Yin Qu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nan Zheng
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xue-Wei Zhou
    • 2
    • 3
  • Song-Li Li
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jia-Qi Wang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wen-Ju Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Animal Science and TechnologyShihezi UniversityXinjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Ministry of Agriculture - Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products (Beijing)BeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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