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Anemia and Dental Caries in Pregnant Women: a Prospective Cohort Study

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Abstract

The objective was to evaluate the effect of anemia during pregnancy on the risk of dental caries development in pregnant women. A prospective cohort including a sample of pregnant women in a prenatal care unit of São Luís, Brazil, was done. The incidence of dental caries during pregnancy, according to Nyvad’s criteria, was the outcome. The main independent variables were serum iron, ferritin, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and red cell distribution width (RDW). Pregnant women (n = 121) were evaluated at two moments: up to 16th week of gestational age (T1) and in the last trimester of pregnancy (T2). Crude and adjusted associations were estimated by the incidence ratio risk (IRR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). After adjustment, higher serum concentrations of ferritin (IRR = 0.97, 95%CI 0.95–0.99) in T1, and Fe (IRR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.98–0.99), ferritin (IRR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.98–0.99), erythrocyte (IRR = 0.71, 95%CI 0.50–0.99), hemoglobin (IRR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.73–0.96), hematocrit (IRR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.88–0.98), MCV (IRR = 0.91, 95%CI 0.86–0.96), and MCH (IRR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74–0.93) in T2, were associated with fewer incidence of dental caries in pregnant women. Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy is a risk factor for the incidence of dental caries in these women.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Foundation for Research Support and Scientific and Technological Development of the State of Maranhão (FAPEMA), PREMIO Notice No. 23/2014 379 (process No. 03235/14) and Article Publishing Support, 2015; and to the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development – CNPq, Public Call MCTI / CNPq—Universal No. 381 14/2013 (process No. 483640 / 2013-1). Besides, que would like to thank the Presidente Dutra University Hospital, Mother and Child Unit of the University Hospital, Federal University of Maranhão (HUUFMA UMI); the Cedro Laboratory; the students who helped in collecting and recording data; and the nursing technicians of HUUFMA UMI.

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Correspondence to Elisa Miranda Costa.

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Costa, E.M., Azevedo, J.A.P., Martins, R.F.M. et al. Anemia and Dental Caries in Pregnant Women: a Prospective Cohort Study. Biol Trace Elem Res 177, 241–250 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-016-0898-6

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