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Metabolomics and Trace Element Analysis of Camel Tear by GC-MS and ICP-MS


Camel tear metabolomics and elemental analysis are useful in getting the information regarding the components responsible for maintaining the protective system that allows living in the desert and dry regions. The aim of this study was to correlate that the camel tears can be used as artificial tears for the evaluation of dryness in the eye. Eye biomarkers of camel tears were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The major compounds detected in camel tears by GC-MS were alanine, valine, leucine, norvaline, glycine, cadaverine, urea, ribitol, sugars, and higher fatty acids like octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. GC-MS analysis of camel tears also finds several products of metabolites and its associated metabolic participants. ICP-MS analysis showed the presence of different concentration of elemental composition in the camel tears.

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The authors extend their sincere appreciation to the Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, for funding this project.

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Correspondence to Syed Rizwan Ahamad or Faiyaz Shakeel.

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The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Ahamad, S.R., Raish, M., Yaqoob, S.H. et al. Metabolomics and Trace Element Analysis of Camel Tear by GC-MS and ICP-MS. Biol Trace Elem Res 177, 251–257 (2017).

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  • Camel tear
  • Elements
  • Gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer
  • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer