Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 175, Issue 2, pp 458–465 | Cite as

In Vitro Toxicological Assessment of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles in Several Mammalian Cell Types

  • Mahmoud Abudayyak
  • Tuba Altincekic Gurkaynak
  • Gül Özhan
Article

Abstract

Nanoparticles have been widely used in various fields due to the superior physicochemical properties and functions. As a result, human exposure to nanoparticles increases dramatically. Previous researches have shown that nanoparticles could travel through the respiratory, digestive system, or skin into the blood and then to the secondary organs such as the brain, heart, and liver. Besides, the nanoparticle toxicity is controversial and dependent on the sensitivity of the cell type, route of exposure, and condition, as well as their characteristics. Similarly, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4-NPs) have been used in different industrial fields, and have also various application possibilities in medical and biomedical fields. CoFe2O4-NPs induce toxic responses in various organisms such as human, mice, and algae. However, there is a serious deficit of information concerning their effects on human health and the environment. We aimed to investigate the toxic effects of CoFe2O4-NPs on liver (HepG2), colon (Caco-2), lung (A549), and neuron (SH-SY5Y) cells, which reflect different exposure routes in vitro, by using various toxicological endpoints. The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative damage, and apoptosis induction of CoFe2O4-NPs (39 ± 17 nm) were evaluated. After 24 h, the nanoparticles decreased cell viability at ≤100 μg/mL, while increasing viability at >100 μg/mL. CoFe2O4-NPs induced DNA and oxidative damage with increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels with no change in protein carbonyl (PC) levels. CoFe2O4-NPs had apoptotic effect in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and necrotic effects on SH-SY5Y and A549 cells. Consequently, the adverse effects of CoFe2O4-NPs should raise concern about their safety in consumer products.

Keywords

Genotoxicity Cytotoxicity Oxidative damage Nanoparticle Cobalt ferrite 

Abbreviations

8-OHdG

8-Hydroxy deoxyguanosine

ATCC

American type culture collection

AV

Annexin V–FITC

CoFe2O4-NPs

Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

DMEM

Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EDTA

Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay

EMEM

Eagle’s minimum essential medium

FBS

Fetal bovine serum

GSH

Glutathione

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

ICP-MS

Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MTT

3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide

NRU

Neutral red uptake

OD

Optical density

PBS

Phosphate buffered saline

PC

Protein carbonyl

PI

Propidium iodide

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SD

Standard deviation

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Research Fund of Istanbul University (Project No: 40441).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud Abudayyak
    • 1
  • Tuba Altincekic Gurkaynak
    • 2
  • Gül Özhan
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical ToxicologyIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical EngineeringIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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