Zinc Content in Cord Blood Is Associated with Maternal Age and Parity
- 203 Downloads
At childbirth (parturition), zinc (Zn) homeostasis in cord blood (CB) can be affected by a number of factors: Zn in maternal blood, parturition related stress as well as metallothionein (MT). Both Zn and stress are known inducers of MT which is primarily involved in Zn homeostasis. This study analyzed Zn concentration [Zn], in CB components and MT-2A transcription in CB mononuclear cells (MNC) in relation to primiparous and multiparous childbirth. [Zn] in CB (n = 47) plasma, erythrocytes, and MNCs were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ = 213.9 nm). The MT-2A transcription in CB-MNC was quantified using real-time PCR. Significant correlations (Pearson r) were found between: plasma-[Zn] and erythrocyte-[Zn] (p = 0.002); [Zn] and MT-2A messenger RNA (mRNA) (p = 0.000) in CB-MNC. Student’s t tests showed higher levels of MT-2A mRNA and MNC-[Zn] in CB of older (≥25 years) compared to younger mothers (≤24 years) (p = 0.043 and p = 0.016, respectively). Significantly higher [Zn] was found in CB plasma (p = 0.017) and MNC (p = 0.041) of older primiparous compared to the younger primiparous and older multiparous mothers respectively. MT-2A mRNA in CB-MNC was significantly lower in CB of younger primiparous mothers compared to their older counterparts (p = 0.001). Path analysis showed that MNC-[Zn] (β = 0.83; p = 0.000) had a greater influence on MT-2A mRNA expression, compared to parity (β = −0.14; p = 0.033). Higher [Zn] in CB of primiparous mothers could be linked to higher stress during parturition, however, might be beneficial for the growth and development of the child. Together MNC-[Zn] and parity contributed ~70 % of the MT-2A transcription in CB-MNC.
KeywordsCatecholamines Erythrocytes Mononuclear cells Parturition Plasma Stress
The authors wish to acknowledge Marzouq Abedur Rahman for language editing.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Sources of Funding
This research was supported by the grant of Basic and Applied Biomedical Research Cluster unit (RCG-22-05).
- 5.Brady FO, Helvig B (1984) Effect of epinephrine and norepinephrine on zinc thionein levels and induction in rat liver. Am J Phys 247(3 Pt 1):E318–E322Google Scholar
- 15.Wang JX, Zhang W (2009) The influence of mode of delivery on the level of catecholamines in umbilical cord blood of neonates. Chin Med J 89:1340–1342Google Scholar
- 21.Hulley SB, Cummings SR, Browner WS, Grady D, Newman TB (2013) Designing clinical research: an epidemiologic approach, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, p. 79Google Scholar
- 26.Aguinis H, Harden EE (2009) Sample size rules of thumb: evaluating three common practices. In: Lance CE, Vandenberg RJ (eds) Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: doctrine, verity and fable in the organizational and social sciences. Taylor & Francis, New York, pp. 267–287Google Scholar
- 31.The world fact book (2014) Mother’s mean age at first birth. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2256.html. Accessed 15 July 2015
- 38.King JC (2000) Determinants of maternal zinc status during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 71:133–143Google Scholar
- 52.Malavolta M, Cipriano C, Costarelli L, Giacconi R, Tesei S, Muti E, Piacenza F, Pierpaoli S, Larbi A, Pawelec G, Dedoussis G, Herbein G, Monti D, Jajte J, Rink L, Mocchegiani E (2008) Metallothionein down regulation in very old age: a phenomenon associated with cellular senescence? Rejuvenation Res 11:455–459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar