Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 173, Issue 2, pp 433–442 | Cite as

Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats

  • Xia Li
  • Yunlong Zhang
  • Yuan Yuan
  • Yong Sun
  • Yan Qin
  • Zeyuan Deng
  • Hongyan LiEmail author


The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by d-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II–XI) were intraperitoneally injected with d-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg−1 body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III–XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III–XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the d-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III–XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against d-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.


Synergistic effect Antioxidant activity Selenium Vitamin E Anthocyanins 



This project was funded by the National Natural Science Funds of China (Grant No. 31301433) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (Grant No. 2013KY04).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures involving rats were conducted in accordance with the guidelines of China for the care and use of laboratory animals.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xia Li
    • 1
  • Yunlong Zhang
    • 1
  • Yuan Yuan
    • 1
  • Yong Sun
    • 1
  • Yan Qin
    • 1
  • Zeyuan Deng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongyan Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of NanchangNanchangChina
  2. 2.Institute for Advanced StudyUniversity of NanchangNanchangChina

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