Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 167, Issue 2, pp 326–337 | Cite as

Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran

  • F. Moore
  • R. Akhbarizadeh
  • B. Keshavarzi
  • F. Tavakoli
Article

Abstract

Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult.

Keywords

Herbal distillates Herbal decoctions Elemental content Potential health risk Dietary intake 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Financial support for this study was provided by Shiraz University Research committee. The authors would also like to express their gratitude to medical geology research center of Shiraz University for logistic support.

References

  1. 1.
    Ramawat KG (2009) Herbal drugs: ethnomedicine to modern medicine. Springer-Verlag, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hoffman D (2003) Medical herbalism: the science and practice of herbal medicine. Healing Arts PressGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhu F, Wang X, Fan W, Qu L, Qiao M, Yao S (2013) Assessment of potential health risk for arsenic and heavy metals in some herbal flowers and their infusions consumed in China. Environ Monit Assess 185:3909–3916CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ebrahim AM, Elayeb MH, Khalid H, Mohammed H, Abdalla W, Grill P, Michalke B (2012) Study on selected trace elements and heavy metals in some popular medicinal plants from Sudan. J Nat Med 66:671–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Suchacz B, Wesolowski M (2012) The analysis of heavy metals content in herbal infusions. Cent Eur J Med 7(4):457–464Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1989) Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). Interim Final, vol. I. Washington (DC): United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/540/1-89/002Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zheng N, Wang QC, Zheng XW, Zheng DM, Zhang ZS, Zhang SQ (2007) Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao City, China. Sci Total Environ 387:96–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huang ML, Zhou SL, SunB ZQG (2008) Heavy metals in wheat grain: assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants in Kunshan, China. Sci Total Environ 405:54–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cao HB, Qiao L, Zhang H, Chen JJ (2010) Exposure and risk assessment for aluminium and heavy metals in Puerh tea. Sci Total Environ 408:2777–2784CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    FAO/WHO (2004) Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives: safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Series: 52, World Health Organization GenevaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    FAO/WHO (2000) Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives: evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Series: 44, World Health Organization GenevaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    FAO/WHO (1989) Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives: evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Series: 24, World Health Organization GenevaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    WHO guidelines on safety monitoring of for assessing quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residues (2007) World Health Organization Press GenevaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    ATSDR Minimal Risk Levels (2007) US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heavy metals: analysis and limits in herbal dietary supplements (2009) American Herbal Products AssociationGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Soylak M, Cihan Z, Yilmaz E (2012) Evaluation of trace element contents of some herbal plants and spices retailed in Kayseri, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 184:3455–3461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Desideri D, Meli MA, Roselli C, Feduzi L (2011) Determination of essential and non-essential elements in herbal tea and chamomile by polarised X rays fluorescence spectrometer (EDPXRF). J Radioanal Nucl Ch 290:391–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bhat R, Kiran K, Arun AB, Karim AA (2010) Determination of mineral composition and heavy metal content of some nutraceutically valued plant products. Food Anal Method 3:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Choudhury RP, Reddy AVR, Garg AN (2007) Availability of essential elements in nutrient supplements used as antidiabetic herbal formulations. Biol Trace Elem Res 120:148–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ngugi MP, Njagi MJ, Kibiti MC, Maina D, Ngeranwa JNJ, Njagi NME, Njue MW, Gathumbi KP (2012) Trace elements content of selected Kenyan antidiabetic medicinal plants. Int J Curr Pharm Res 4(3):39–42Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kolachi NF, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Khan S, Wadhwa SK, Shah AQ, Shah F, Baig JA, Sirajudin (2010) Determination of selenium content in aqueous extract of medicinal plants used as herbal supplement for cancer patients. Food Chem Toxicol 48:3327–3332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zeng H, Combs GFJ (2008) Selenium as an anticancer nutrient: roles in cell proliferation and tumor cell invasion. J Nutr Biochem 19(1):1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moradi M, Eftekhari MH, Talei A, Rajaei Fard A (2009) A comparative study of selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in normal and breast cancer patients. Public Health Nutr 12(1):59–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Karimi M, Kadivar R, Yarmohammadi H (2002) Assessment of the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia by serum ferritin, in pregnant women of southern Iran. Med Sci Monit 8(7):488–492Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kadivar MR, Yarmahmoodi H, Mirahmazizadeh AR, Vakili M, Karimi M (2003) Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in 6 months to 5 years old children in Fars, Southern Iran. Med Sci Monit 9(2):100–104Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dabbaghmanesh MH, Salehi NM, Siadatan J, Omrani G (2011) Copper concentration in a healthy urban adult population of southern Iran. Biol Trace Elem Res 144(1–3):217–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dehghani SM, Katibe P, Haghighat M, Moravej H, Asadi S (2011) Prevalence of zinc deficiency in 3–18 years old children in Shiraz-Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J 13(1):4–8PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shakeri A, Moore F, Modabberi S (2009) Heavy metal contamination and distribution in the Shiraz industrial complex zone soil, South Shiraz, Iran. World Appl Sci J 6(3):413–425Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Okem A, Southway C, Strik WA, Street RA, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2014) Heavy metal contamination in South Africa medicinal plants: a cause for concern. S Afr J Bot 93:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Selinus O, Alloway BJ, Centeno JA, Finkelman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (2005) Essential of medical geology impact of the natural environment on public health. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, USAGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ajasa AMO, Bello MO, Ibrahim AO, Ogunwande IA, Olawore NO (2004) Heavy trace metals and macronutrients status in herbal plants of Nigeria. Food Chem 85:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kostić D, Mitić S, Zarubica A, Mitić M, Veličković J, Randjelović S (2011) Content of trace metals in medicinal plants and their extracts. Hem Ind 65(2):165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li R, Yang W, Su Y, Li Q, Gao S, Shang JK (2014) Ionic potential: a general material criterion for the selection of highly efficient arsenic adsorbents. J Mater Sci Tech 30(10):949–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sarma H, Deka S, Deka H, Rekha Saikia R (2011) Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants. Environ Contam Toxicol. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0668-6-4 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gergen I, Harmanescu M (2012) Application of principal component analysis in the pollution assessment with heavy metals of vegetable food chain in the old mining areas. Chem Cent J. doi: 10.1186/1752-153X-6-156 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Moore
    • 1
  • R. Akhbarizadeh
    • 1
  • B. Keshavarzi
    • 1
  • F. Tavakoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences, College of ScienceShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations