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Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, H.B.K.) Improves Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Biomarkers in Hemodialysis Patients

Abstract

Cumulative evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation frequently occurs in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and as a result of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease of antioxidant defenses such as selenium (Se). Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the supplementation of 1 unit of Brazil nut (the richest known food source of Se) a day during 3 months is effective to improve Se status and increase glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in HD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Brazil nut supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammation markers in HD patients. Forty HD patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. All patients received one nut per day for 3 months. The Se plasma levels and GPx, 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and lipid profile were determined before and after 3 months of supplementation. The plasma Se and GPx activity increased, while cytokines, 8-OHdG, and 8-isoprostane plasma levels decreased significantly after 3 months supplementation. HDL-c levels increased and LDL-c levels decreased significantly. These data suggest that the consumption of only one Brazil nut per day during 3 months was effective to reduce the inflammation, oxidative stress markers, and the atherogenic risk, thereby increasing the antioxidant defenses in HD patients. Our results indicate that Brazil nut as Se source plays an important role as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent in HD patients.

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Acknowledgments

We wish to thank the Clinic RenalCor, Rio de Janeiro, for allowing their patients to participate in this study. This study was supported by FAPERJ (Foundation for Research of the state of Rio de Janeiro) and as well as by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Milena Barcza Stockler-Pinto.

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Stockler-Pinto, M.B., Mafra, D., Moraes, C. et al. Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, H.B.K.) Improves Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Biomarkers in Hemodialysis Patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 158, 105–112 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-9904-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-9904-z

Keywords

  • Selenium
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Hemodialysis
  • Oxidative stress and inflammation