Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 163, Issue 1–2, pp 193–201 | Cite as

Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure of Wi-Fi on Development of Teeth and Changes in Teeth Element Concentration in Rats

Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) and Teeth Element Concentrations
  • Zülfikar Zahit Çiftçi
  • Zühal Kırzıoğlu
  • Mustafa Nazıroğlu
  • Özlem Özmen


The present study determined the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on tooth and surrounding tissue development as well as the element levels in growing rats. Twenty-four rats and their offspring were equally divided into two separate groups identified as experiment and control. The experiment group was exposed to 2.45 GHz EMR for 2 h/day during the periods of pregnancy (21 days) and lactation (21 days). The offspring of these dams were also exposed to EMR up to decapitation. The control group was exposed to cage stress for 2 h per day using the same protocol established for the experimental group. On the 7th, 14th, and 21st days after birth, 8 male offspring rats from each of the two groups were decapitated, and the jaws were taken for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Caspase-3 (1/50 dilution) was used in the immunohistochemical examination for apoptotic activity. On the last day of the experiment, the rats’ incisors were also collected. In samples that were histologically and immunohistochemically examined, there was an increase in apoptosis and caspase-3 in both the control and the Wi-Fi groups during the development of the teeth. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of development and apoptotic activity. Results from the elemental analysis showed that iron and strontium concentrations were increased in the Wi-Fi group, whereas boron, copper, and zinc concentrations were decreased. There were no statistically significant differences in calcium, cadmium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, or phosphorus values between the groups. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations between the experimental and control groups showed that exposure to 2.45 GHz EMR for 2 h per day does not interfere with the development of teeth and surrounding tissues. However, there were alterations in the elemental composition of the teeth, especially affecting such oxidative stress-related elements as copper, zinc, and iron, suggesting that short-term exposure to Wi-Fi-induced EMR may cause an imbalance in the oxidative stress condition in the teeth of growing rats.


Rat tooth development Developmental effect Element MAP, bone morphogenetic proteins FGF, fibroblast growth factor ROS, reactive oxygen species SAR, specific absorption rate Wi-Fi 



The study was supported by Scientific Research Project Unit of Suleyman Demirel University (BAP-3334-D2-12). The abstract of the study was submitted to the 5th International Congress on Cell Membranes and Oxidative Stress: Focus on Calcium Signaling and TRP Channels, 9–12 September 2014, Isparta Turkey (

Authors’ Roles

ZZÇ, ZK and MN formulated the present hypothesis and MN was also responsible for writing the report. ÖÖ was responsible for pathological analyses. ZZÇ and ZK were repsonsible for experimental procedure of the study. ZK made critical revisions to the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

None of the authors have any conflicts to disclose. All authors have approved the final manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zülfikar Zahit Çiftçi
    • 1
  • Zühal Kırzıoğlu
    • 1
  • Mustafa Nazıroğlu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Özlem Özmen
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of DentistrySüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Biophysics, Faculty of MedicineSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  3. 3.Neuroscience Research CenterSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, Faculty of VeterinaryMehmet Akif Ersoy UniversityBurdurTurkey

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