Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 160, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Perspectives in Endocrine Toxicity of Heavy Metals—A Review

  • S. V. S. RanaEmail author


An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.


Adrenals Thyroid Testis Ovary Pancreas Lead Mercury cadmium Reproductive and endocrine toxicity 



Cyclic adenosine monophosphate


Adrenocorticotrophic hormone


Growth hormone


Thyroid-stimulating hormone


Lead in blood


Retinoic acid receptor


Central nervous system


Uridine phosphate


Environmental Protection Agency


Reactive oxygen species


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


Prostaglandin F


Follicle-stimulating hormone


Luteinizing hormone




Hamster insulinoma tumour β cells


Radiation-induced β cells



I am thankful to my colleagues Dr Y Verma and Mr Nitin Sharma for their skilful assistance in the preparation of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Toxicology Laboratory, Department of ZoologyC. C. S. UniversityMeerutIndia

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