Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 156, Issue 1–3, pp 124–129 | Cite as

Analysis of Immune-Relevant Genes Expressed in Spleen of Capra hircus Kids Fed with Trivalent Chromium

Article

Abstract

Chromium is a biologically important element for humans and laboratory animals. Although the favorable effects of trivalent chromium on immune responses of studied animals have been well documented, the precise mechanisms by which the chromium acts on immune system is relatively poor studied. In this study, real-time qPCR technique was employed to evaluate the expression profiles of four immune-related genes (B2M, MHCA, MHCB, and Rap2A) in spleens of the domestic goats, Capra hircus, feeding on four different levels of supplemental chromium (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg/day) as chromium–methionine. The results showed that 1.5 mg/day of supplemental chromium significantly increased the expression of the four studied genes (P < 0.01). Since the studied genes play important roles in development, activation, and migration of lymphocytes, their increased expression seems to be an unknown mechanism by which chromium impose reinforcing effects on immune system. Therefore, supplemental chromium can be potentially used to improve immune responses especially in animals experiencing any type of stress such as invasion by a pathogen.

Keyword

Chromium Domestic goat Gene expression Immunity Real-time PCR 

References

  1. 1.
    Shrivastava R, Upreti R, Seth P, Chaturvedi U (2002) Effects of chromium on the immune system. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 34(1):1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mertz W (1993) Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr 123(4):626–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Flora S (2000) Threshold mechanisms and site specificity in chromium (VI) carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 21(4):533–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Izzotti A, Cartiglia C, Balansky R, D’Agostini F, Longobardi M, De Flora S (2002) Selective induction of gene expression in rat lung by hexavalent chromium. Mol Carcinog 35(2):75–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Di Bona KR, Love S, Rhodes NR, McAdory D, Sinha SH, Kern N, Kent J, Strickland J, Wilson A, Beaird J, Ramage J, Rasco JF, Vincent JB (2011) Chromium is not an essential trace element for mammals: effects of a “low-chromium” diet. J Biol Inorg Chem 16:381–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pechova A, Pavlata L (2007) Chromium as an essential nutrient: a review. Vet Med (Praha) 52(1):1Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haldar S, Mondal S, Samanta S, Ghosh T (2009) Effects of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance and primary antibody response against peste des petits ruminants in dwarf Bengal goats (Capra hircus). Animal 3(2):209–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Swanson K, Harmon D, Jacques K, Larson B, Richards C, Bohnert D, Paton S (2000) Efficacy of chromium-yeast supplementation for growing beef steers. Anim Feed Sci Technol 86(1):95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yan X, Zhang W, Cheng J, Wang R, Kleemann DO, Zhu X, Jia Z (2008) Effects of chromium yeast on performance, insulin activity, and lipid metabolism in lambs fed different dietary protein levels. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 21(6):853Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anderson RA (1994) Stress effects on chromium nutrition of humans and farm animals. Nothingham University, NothingamGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Emami A, Zali A, Ganjkhanlou M, Akbari-Afjani A (2012) Nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and plasma metabolites in kids fed diets supplemented with chromium methionine. Online J Anim Feed Res 2(2):127–132Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pechova A, Podhorský A, Lokajova E, Pavlata L, Illek J (2002) Metabolic effects of chromium supplementation in dairy cows in the peripartal period. Acta Vet Brno 71(1):9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burton J, Mallard B, Mowat D (1993) Effects of supplemental chromium on immune responses of periparturient and early lactation dairy cows. J Anim Sci 71(6):1532–1539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burton JL (1995) Supplemental chromium: its benefits to the bovine immune system. Anim Feed Sci Technol 53(2):117–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burton JL, Mallard BA, Mowat DN (1994) Effects of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly weaned feedlot calves to immunization with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza 3 virus. Can Vet Res 58(2):148Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chang GX, Mallard BA, Mowat D, Gallo G (1996) Effect of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves to vaccines and ovalbumin. Can J Vet Res 60(2):140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moonsie-Shageer S, Mowat D (1993) Effect of level of supplemental chromium on performance, serum constituents, and immune status of stressed feeder calves. J Anim Sci 71(1):232–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Borgs P, Mallard B (1998) Immune-endocrine interactions in agricultural species: chromium and its effect on health and performance. Domest Anim Endocrinol 15(5):431–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clancy HA, Sun H, Passantino L, Kluz T, Munoz A, Zavadil J, Costa M (2012) Gene expression changes in human lung cells exposed to arsenic, chromium, nickel or vanadium indicate the first steps in cancer. Metallomics 4(8):784–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maples NL, Bain L (2004) Trivalent chromium alters gene expression in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Environ Toxicol Chem 23(3):626–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Permenter MG, Lewis JA, Jackson DA (2011) Exposure to nickel, chromium, or cadmium causes distinct changes in the gene expression patterns of a rat liver derived cell line. PloS One 6(11):e27730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ye J, Shi X (2001) Gene expression profile in response to chromium-induced cell stress in A549 cells. Mol Mech Met Toxic Carcinogen 34:189–197Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Güssow D, Rein R, Ginjaar I, Hochstenbach F, Seemann G, Kottman A, Ploegh H (1987) The human beta 2-microglobulin gene. Primary structure and definition of the transcriptional unit. J Immunol 139(9):3132–3138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Apanius V, Penn D, Slev PR, Ruff LR, Potts WK (1997) The nature of selection on the major histocompatibility complex. Crit Rev Immunol 17(2):40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Penn DJ, Potts WK (1999) The evolution of mating preferences and major histocompatibility complex genes. Am Nat 153(2):145–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thornhill R, Gangestad SW, Miller R, Scheyd G, McCollough JK, Franklin M (2003) Major histocompatibility complex genes, symmetry, and body scent attractiveness in men and women. Behav Ecol 14(5):668–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McLeod SJ, Li AH, Lee RL, Burgess AE, Gold MR (2002) The Rap GTPases regulate B cell migration toward the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12): potential role for Rap2 in promoting B cell migration. J Immunol 169(3):1365–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McLeod SJ, Shum AJ, Lee RL, Takei F, Gold MR (2004) The Rap GTPases regulate integrin-mediated adhesion, cell spreading, actin polymerization, and Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation in B lymphocytes. J Biol Chem 279(13):12009–12019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Paganini S, Guidetti GF, Catricalà S, Trionfini P, Panelli S, Balduini C, Torti M (2006) Identification and biochemical characterization of Rap2C, a new member of the Rap family of small GTP-binding proteins. Biochimie 88(3):285–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chomczynski P, Sacchi N (2006) The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on. Nat prot 1(2):581–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Untergasser A, Nijveen H, Rao X, Bisseling T, Geurts R, Leunissen JA (2007) Primer3Plus, an enhanced web interface to Primer3. Nucleic Acids Res 35(suppl 2):W71–W74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rozen S, Skaletsky H (1999) Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. In: Bioinformatics methods and protocols. Springer, pp 365–386Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kibbe WA (2007) OligoCalc: an online oligonucleotide properties calculator. Nucleic Acids Res 35(suppl 2):W43–W46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ye J, Coulouris G, Zaretskaya I, Cutcutache I, Rozen S, Madden TL (2012) Primer-BLAST: a tool to design target-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction. BMC Bioinforma 13(1):134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pfaffl MW (2001) A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT–PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 29(9):e45–e45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Radonić A, Thulke S, Mackay IM, Landt O, Siegert W, Nitsche A (2004) Guideline to reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 313(4):856–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2− ΔΔC t method. Methods 25(4):402–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wilkening S, Bader A (2004) Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction: methodical analysis and mathematical model. J Biol Technol 15(2):107Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bohnsack J, Brown E (1986) The role of the spleen in resistance to infection. Ann Rev Med 37(1):49–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wijburg O, VAN ROOIJEN N (1997) Role of spleen macrophages in innate and acquired immune responses against mouse hepatitis virus strain A59. Immunology 92(2):252–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S (2005) Cellular and molecular immunology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Penn DJ (2002) The scent of genetic compatibility: sexual selection and the major histocompatibility complex. Ethology 108(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kegley E, Spears J, Brown T (1997) Effect of shipping and chromium supplementation on performance, immune response, and disease resistance of steers. J Anim Sci 75(7):1956–1964PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran

Personalised recommendations