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Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 154, Issue 2, pp 168–177 | Cite as

Dietary Intervention Causes Redistribution of Zinc in Obese Adolescents

  • Simone Cardoso FreireEmail author
  • Mauro Fisberg
  • Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino
Article

Abstract

Obese people tend to have low zinc circulation levels; this is not always related to zinc intake but can reflect the distribution of zinc in relation to the proportion of body fat and factors related to the inflammatory processes that cause obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess zinc distribution in 15 obese adolescent girls before and after a nutritional orientation program. Participants ranged from 14 to 18 years old (postpubescent) and had a body fat percent (BF%) of >35 %. Zinc nutritional status and other zinc-dependent parameters, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and insulin levels, were assessed by biochemical analysis of plasma and erythrocytes, salivary sediment, and urine. Samples were collected before and after 4 months of dietary intervention. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to verify BF% both at the beginning and at the end of the study. Food consumption was assessed in ten individual food questionnaires throughout the study; food groups were separated on the questionnaires in the same way as suggested by some authors to develop the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) but with the addition of zinc. After 4 months of nutritional orientation, 78 % of the participants showed a decrease in BF%. Intraerythrocytic zinc increased over the study period, while salivary sediment zinc, SOD, insulin, and Zn urinary24 h/creatinine all decreased (p < 0.05). There was no difference in zinc intake throughout the study but participants did increase their consumption of fruits, dairy, and meats during the study (p < 0.05). There were inverse and statistically significant correlations between the increased levels of intraerythrocytic zinc and decreased levels of SOD. There was also a statistically significant correlation between BF% and Zn urinary 24h/creatinine, and SOD. All these parameters were diminished at the end of the study. The dietary intervention for obese adolescent girls is effective with decrease of BF that led to the redistribution of zinc in the body as shown by the changes in erythrocytes, plasma, salivary, urine zinc, as well as the complementary parameters of insulin and SOD. These changes were not affected by zinc intake.

Key words

Bioavailability CuZnSOD Diet therapy Obesity Puberty 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simone Cardoso Freire
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Mauro Fisberg
    • 2
  • Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of São Paulo, University Federal of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Center of Service and Support to the Adolescent (CAAA) PediatricsUniversity Federal of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Minerals Experimental Nutrition and Food Department, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.São PauloBrazil

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