Dietary Intake of Magnesium May Modulate Depression
- 976 Downloads
Depressive symptoms are frequent in students and may lead to countless problems. Several hypotheses associate magnesium with depression because of the presence of this mineral in several enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which may play a key role in the pathological pathways of depression. The aim of this study was to assess whether magnesium intake could modulate depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 402 Iranian postgraduate students studying in Malaysia to assess the relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 32.54 ± 6.22 years. The results of the study demonstrated an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and depressive symptoms, which persisted even after adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, monthly expenses, close friends, living on campus, smoking (current and former), education, physical activity, and marital status.
KeywordsDepression Magnesium Inflammation Student
We express our sincere appreciation to all the participants of this study. We also thank Dr. Javad Aazami, Dr. Siavash Yari and Dr. Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz for encouraging and supporting this study.
- 1.Patel V, Kleinman A (2003) Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries. B World Health Organ 81:609–615Google Scholar
- 20.Kimiagar SM, Ghaffarpour M, Houshiar-Rad A, Hormozdyari H, Zellipour L (1998) Food consumption pattern in the Islamic Republic of Iran and its relation to coronary heart disease. East Mediterr Health J 4:539–547Google Scholar
- 25.Davison KM (2011) The determinants of food intake in individuals with mood disordersGoogle Scholar
- 34.Yap SH, Moshage HJ, Hazenberg BPC, Roelofs HMJ, Bijzet J, Limburg PC, Aarden LA, Van Rijswijk MH (1991) Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibits interleukin (IL)-1 and/or IL-6 stimulated synthesis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. BBA-Mol Cell Biol Lipids 1091:405–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Kramer JH, Mak IT, Phillips TM, Weglicki WB (2003) Dietary magnesium intake influences circulating pro-inflammatory neuropeptide levels and loss of myocardial tolerance to postischemic stress. Exp Biol Med 228:665Google Scholar
- 47.Iezhitsa IN, Spasov AA, Kharitonova MV, Kravchenko MS (2011) Effect of magnesium chloride on psychomotor activity, emotional status, and acute behavioural responses to clonidine, d-amphetamine, arecoline, nicotine, apomorphine, and l-5-hydroxytryptophan. Nutr Neurosci 14:10–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 48.Otten JJ, Hellwig JP, Meyers LD (eds) (2006) Dietary reference intakes. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 49.No Author (1997) Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Nutrition/DRIs/DRI_Elements.pdf.