Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 145, Issue 1, pp 81–86 | Cite as

Bioaccessibility and Risk Assessment of Cadmium from Uncooked Rice Using an In Vitro Digestion Model

  • Lin-Sheng Yang
  • Xiu-Wu ZhangEmail author
  • Yong-Hua LiEmail author
  • Hai-Rong Li
  • Ying Wang
  • Wu-Yi Wang


Cadmium (Cd)-contaminated rice is one of the most important sources of cadmium exposure in the general population from some Asian countries. This study was conducted to assess cadmium exposure from uncooked rice in rural mining areas based on the bioaccessible fraction of cadmium using an in vitro digestion model. The biotoxic effects of cadmium in uncooked rice from mining areas were much higher than those in the control area, based not only on their higher total concentration (52.49 vs. 7.93 μg kg−1), but also on their higher bioaccessibility (16.94% vs. 2.38%). In the mining areas, the bioaccessible fraction of cadmium in uncooked rice has a significant positive correlation with the total concentration of cadmium in rice and there was quarterly unsafe rice to the public in the mining areas. The results indicated that the in vitro digestion model could be a useful and economical tool for providing the solubilization or bioaccessibility of uncooked rice in the mining area. The results could be helpful in conducting future experiments of cooked rice in the vitro model.


Cadmium Bioaccessibility In vitro Risk assessment Human health 



Financial support was provided by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41040014; 40571008), National Key Technology R&D Program of China (2007BAC03A11-07), the Knowledge Innovation Foundation of the IGSNRR (200906002), and the SSRC Collaborative Grants Program supported by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. The authors would like to thank Dr. Jennifer Holdaway from SSRC for proof reading the final manuscript.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Life Science and TechnologyJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Research Center for Environment Change and HealthInstitute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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