Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 144, Issue 1–3, pp 454–462 | Cite as

Effect of Zinc and Selenium Supplementation on Serum Testosterone and Plasma Lactate in Cyclist After an Exhaustive Exercise Bout

  • Leila Shafiei Neek
  • Abas Ali Gaeini
  • Siroos Choobineh


Zinc and selenium are essential minerals and have roles for more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate how exhaustive exercise affects testosterone levels and plasma lactate in cyclists who were supplemented with oral zinc and selenium for 4 weeks. For this reason, 32 male road cyclists were selected equally to four groups: PL group, placebo; Zn group, zinc supplement (30 mg/day); Se group, selenium supplement (200 μg/day); and Zn–Se group, zinc–selenium supplement. After treatment, free, total testosterone, and lactate levels of subjects were determined before and after exhaustive exercise. Resting total, free testosterone, and lactate levels did not differ significantly between groups, and were increased by exercise (P > 0.05). Serum total testosterone levels in Zn group were higher than in Se group after exercise (P < 0.05). Serum-free testosterone levels in the Zn group were higher than the other groups (P < 0.05).There was an insignificant difference between levels of lactate in the four groups after exercise (P > 0.05). The results showed that 4-week simultaneous and separately zinc and selenium supplementation had no significant effect on resting testosterone and lactate levels of subjects who consume a zinc and selenium sufficient diet. It might be possible that the effect of zinc supplementation on free testosterone depends on exercise.


Exhaustion exercise Lactate Road cyclists Testosterone Selenium supplementation Zinc supplementation 


  1. 1.
    Flinn JM, Hunter D, Linkous DH et al (2005) Enhance zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc. Physiol Behav 83:793–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cordova A, Alvarez-Mon M (1995) Behaviour of zinc in physical exercise: a special reference to immunity and fatigue. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 19:439–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stallard L, Reeves PG (1997) Zinc deficiency in adult rats reduces the relative abundance of testis-specific angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA. J Nutr 127:25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Favier AE (1992) The role of zinc in reproduction. Biol Trace Elem Res 32:363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fuse H, Kazama T, Ohta S, Fujiuchi Y (1999) Relationship between zinc concentrations in seminal plasma and various sperm parameters. Int Urol Nephrol 31:401–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    VanLoan MD, Sutherland B, Lowe NM, Turnland JR, King JC (1999) The effects of zinc depletion on peak force and total work of knee and shoulder extensor and flexor muscles. Int J Sport Nutr 9:125–135Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaya O, Gokdemir K, Kilic M, Baltaci AK (2006) Zinc supplementation in rats subjected to acute swimming exercise: its effect on testosterone levels and relation with lactate. Neuroendocrinol Lett 27(1–2):267–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shamberger RJ (1986) Selenium metabolism and function. Clin Physiol Biochem 4:42–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shu H (1989) Human selenium deficiency during total parenteral nutrition support (a case report). Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 11:74–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akil M, Gurbuz U, Bicer M, Sivrikaya A, Mogulkoc R, Baltaci AK (2011) Effect of selenium supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and lactate levels in rats immediately after acute swimming exercise. Biol Trace Elem Res. (in press)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Behne D, Weiler H, Kyriakopoulos A (1996) Effects of selenium deficiency on testicular morphology and function in rats. J Reprod Fertil 106:291–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Duma E, Orbai P, Derevenco P (1998) Blood levels of some electrolytes and hormones during exercise in athletes. Rom J Physiol 35:55–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang WS, Yu MD, Lee MS, Cheng CY, Yang SP, Chin HM, Wu SY (2004) Effect of treadmill exercise on circulating thyroid hormone measurements. Med Princ Pract 13:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rosolowska-Huszcz D (1998) The effect of exercise training intensity on thyroid activity at rest. J Physiol Pharmacol 49:457–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bosco C, Tihanyl J, Rivalta L, Parlato G, Tranquilli C, Pulvirenti G, Foti C, Viru M, Viru A (1996) Hormonal responses in strenuous jumping effort. Jpn J Physiol 46:93–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kilic M, Baltaci AK, Gunay M et al (2006) The effect of exhaustion exercise on thyroid hormones and testosterone levels of elite athletes receiving oral zinc. Neuroendocrinol Lett 27(1–2):247–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board (2001) (2000). Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. National Academy Press: Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kuipers H, Verstappen FT, Keizer HA, Geurten P, Van kranenburg G (1985) Varability of aerobic performance in the laboratory and its physiological correlates. Int J Sports Med 6(4):197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kuipers H, Keizer HA, Brouns F, Saris WHM (1987) Carbohydrate feeding and glycogen synthesis during exercise in man. Pflugers Archives 410(6):662–665Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cinar V, Polat Y, Baltaci AK, Mogulkoc R (2011) Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. Biol Trace Elem Res 140(1):18–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cinar V, Baltaci AK, Mogulkoc R, Kilic M (2009) Testosterone levels in athletes at rest and exhaustion: effects of calcium supplementation. Biol Trace Elem Res 129(1–3):65–69, SummerPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bermudez JA, Perex-Pasten E, Villalpando S et al (1986) Low plasma zinc and androgen in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Arch Androl 16(2):151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Berchtold P, Berger M, Cuppers HJ, Herrman J, Nieschlag E, Rudroff K et al (1978) Non-glucoregulatory hormones (T4, T3, rT3, TSH, testosterone) during physical exercise in juvenile type diabetic. Horm Metab Res 10:269–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ravaglia G, Forti P, Mailoi F, Pratell L, Vettori C, Bastagli L et al (2001) Regular moderate intensity physical activity and blood concentrations of endogenous anabolic hormones and thyroid hormones in aging men. Mech Aging Dev 122:191–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Woody CJ, Weber SL, Laubach HE, Ingram-Willey V, Amini-Alashti P, Sturbaum BA (1998) The effects of chronic exercise on metabolic and reproductive functions in male rats. Life Sci 62(4):327–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hackney AC, Sinning WE, Bruot BC (1988) Reproductive hormonal profiles of endurance-trained and untrained males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28:180–189Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hackney AC, Fahrner CL, Stupnicki R (1997) Reproductive hormonal response to maximal exercise in endurance-trained men with low resting testosterone levels. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 105:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hekonen M, Naveri H, Kuoppasalmi K, Huhtaniemi I (2001) Pituitary and gonadal function during physical exercise in the male rat. J Steroid Biochem 35(1):127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ronsen O, Huge E, Klarlund PB, Bahr R (2001) Increased neuroendocrine response to a repeated bout of endurance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(4):568–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cadoux-Hudson TA, Few JD, Imms FJ (1985) The effect of exercise on the production and clearance of testosterone in well trained young men. Eur J Appl Physiol 154(3):321–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Caballero MJ, Mena P, Maynarm M (1992) Changes in sex hormone binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and plasma lipids in male cyclists during training and competition. Eur J Appl Physiol 64(1):9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cumming DC, Brunsting LA, Strich G, Ries AL, Rebar RW (1986) Reproductive hormone increase response to acute exercise in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 18(4):369–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lin H, Wang SW, Wang RY, Wang PS (2001) Stimulatory effect of lactate on testosterone production by rat Leydig cells. J Cell Biochem 83(1):147–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Raastad T, Bjoro T, Hallen J (2000) Hormonal responses to high and moderate intensity strength exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 82(1–2):121–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vaamonde D, Da Silva ME, Poblador MS, Lancho JL (2005) Reproductive profile of physical active men after exhaustive endurance exercise. Int J Sports Med 26:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jezova D, Vigas M, Tatar P, Kvetnansky R, Nazar K, Kaciuba-Uscilko H, Kozlowski S (1985) Plasma testosterone and catecholamine responses to physical exercise of different intensities in men. Eur J Appl Physiol 54(1):62–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nishi Y, Hatano S, Aihara K et al (1984) Effect of zinc ion on human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated in vitro production of cAMP and testosterone by rat testis. Pediatr Res 18:232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grumbach MM, Coute FA (1992) Disorders of sex in differentiation. In: Wilson JD, Foster WD (eds) Williams textbook of endocrinology, 8th edn. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, p 853Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kilic M (2007) Effect of fatiguing bicycle exercise on thyroid hormone and testosterone levels in sedentary males supplemented with oral zinc. Neuroendocrinol Lett 28(5):181–185Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koehler K, Parr MK, Geyer H et al (2007) Serum testosterone and urinary excretion of steroid hormone metabolites after administration of a high-dose zinc supplement. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chandra RK (1984) Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. JAMA 252:1443–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hooper PL, Visconti L, Gary PJ, Jahnson GE (1980) Zinc lowers high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. JAMA 244:1960–1961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Haymes EM (1991) Vitamin and mineral supplementation to athletes. Int J Sport Nutr 1:146–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Benardot RD (2006) Advanced sports nutrition. Human Kinetics PP, United State, p 92Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    El-Sisy GA, Abdel-Rezek AMA (2008) Effect of dietary zinc or selenium supplementation on some reproductive hormone levels in male Baladi goats. Global Vet 2(2):46–50Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Grant S, McMillan K, Newell J, Wood L, Keatley S, Simpson D, Leslie K, Fairlie-Clark S (2002) Reproducibility of the blood lactate threshold, 4 mmol.l(−1) marker, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion during incremental treadmill exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 87:159–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thomson CD (2004) Assessment of requirements for selenium and adequacy of selenium status: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:391–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Baltaci AK, Ozyurek K, Mogulkoc R, Kurtoglu E, Ozkan Y, Celik I (2003) Effects of zinc deficiency and supplementation on the glycogen contents of liver and plasma lactate and leptin levels of rats performing acute exercise. Biol Trace Elem Res 96(1–3):227–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leila Shafiei Neek
    • 1
  • Abas Ali Gaeini
    • 1
  • Siroos Choobineh
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Physical Education and Sport SciencesUniversity of TehranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations