Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 143, Issue 2, pp 1121–1130 | Cite as

Bioavailability and Concentration of Heavy Metals in the Sediments and Leaves of Grey Mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh, in Sirik Azini Creek, Iran

  • Hossein Parvaresh
  • Zahra Abedi
  • Parvin Farshchi
  • Mahmood Karami
  • Nematullah Khorasani
  • Abdolreza Karbassi


The concentration and bioavailability of Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb in the sediments and leaves of grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, were studied throughout Sirik Azini creek (Iran) with a view to determine heavy metals bioavailability, and two methods were used. Results show that Zn and Ni had the highest concentrations in the sediments, while Cd and Cu were found to have the lowest concentrations in the sediments. Compared to the mean concentrations of heavy metals in sedimentary rock (shales), Zn and Cu showed lower concentration, possibly indicating that the origin of these heavy metals is natural. A geo-accumulation index (I geo) was used to determine the degree of contamination in the sediments. I geo values for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Ni showed that there is no pollution from these metals in the study area. As heavy metal concentrations in leaves were higher than the bioavailable fraction of metals in sediments, it follows that bioconcentration factors (leaf/bioavailable sediment) for some metals were higher than 1.


Bioavailability Heavy metals Avicennia marina Azini creek Sirik mangrove forest 



Funding support for this project was provided by the Iranian Department of Environment, Hormozgan Office. The authors are grateful to Ghodrat Mirzadeh, Elyas Parvaresh, Nasrin Karimi, Maria Mohammadizadeh, Hasan Mehranpoor, Mostafa Mehranpoor, Asghar Bijani, and David Phillips for their assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Parvaresh
    • 1
    • 4
  • Zahra Abedi
    • 1
  • Parvin Farshchi
    • 1
  • Mahmood Karami
    • 2
  • Nematullah Khorasani
    • 2
  • Abdolreza Karbassi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environment and Energy, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  3. 3.Graduate Faculty of EnvironmentUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  4. 4.Bandar AbbasIran

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