Effects of Selenium and L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Blood of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices


The levels of blood lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and vitamin C were used to follow the level of oxidative damage caused by 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation in rats. The possible protective effects of selenium and L-carnitine were also tested and compared to untreated controls. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were equally divided into five groups, namely Groups A1 and A2: controls and sham controls, respectively; Group B: EMR; Group C: EMR + selenium, Group D: EMR + L-carnitine. Groups B–D were exposed to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation during 60 min/day for 28 days. The lipid peroxidation levels in plasma and erythrocytes were significantly higher in group B than in groups A1 and A2 (p < 0.05), although the reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were slightly lower in erythrocytes of group B compared to groups A1 and A2. The plasma lipid peroxidation level in group A2 was significantly lower than in group B (p < 0.05). Erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels (p < 0.01) in group B; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity in group A2 (p < 0.05), group B (p < 0.001), and group C (p < 0.05) were found to be lower than in group D. In conclusion, 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation caused oxidative stress in blood of rat. L-carnitine seems to have protective effects on the 2.45-GHz-induced blood toxicity by inhibiting free radical supporting antioxidant redox system although selenium has no effect on the investigated values.

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electromagnetic radiation




glutathione peroxidase






lipid peroxidation




radio frequency


reactive oxygen species


specific absorption rate




superoxide dismutase


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Correspondence to Mustafa Naziroglu.

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Gumral, N., Naziroglu, M., Koyu, A. et al. Effects of Selenium and L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Blood of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices. Biol Trace Elem Res 132, 153 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-009-8372-3

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  • 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Glutathione peroxidase
  • Vitamin C
  • L-carnitine
  • Selenium