Hepatoprotective Potentials of Onion and Garlic Extracts on Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats
- 372 Downloads
The hepatoprotective effect of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in rats is reported. Control group received double-distilled water alone. Cd group was challenged with 3CdSO4·8H2O (as Cd; 1.5 mg/kg bw per day per oral) alone, while extract-treated groups were pretreated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g bw per day per oral) for a week and thereafter co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/kg bw per day per oral) for 3 weeks. Cd caused a marked (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and glutathione S-transferase, whereas glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were decreased in the liver. We also observed a decrease in hepatic activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase and a concomitant increase in the plasma activities of ALT and AST. Onion and garlic extracts significantly attenuated these adverse effects of Cd. Onion extract proffered a dose-dependent hepatoprotection. Our study showed that Cd-induced oxidative damage in rat liver is amenable to attenuation by high dose of onion and moderate dose of garlic extracts possibly via reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defense system that is insufficient to prevent and protect Cd-induced hepatotoxicity.
KeywordsHepatoprotection Cadmium Onion Garlic Oxidative damage Antioxidant
The authors gratefully acknowledged the Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria for providing the basic facilities used in this study.
- 2.World Health Organization (1992) Environmental health criteria 134, cadmium. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 9.Denton L, Ojeifo IM (1990) Onion production practices and their improvement in Nigeria. Onion Newsl Trop 2:10–13Google Scholar
- 26.Jinna RR, Ahanandsalim KJ, Desiough D (1989) Protection against cadmium toxicity and enzyme inhibition by dithiothreitol. Cell Biochem Funct 7:110–112Google Scholar
- 33.Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1999) Free radical biology and medicine, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 34.Kowalczyk E, Kopff A, Pijalkowski P et al (2003) Effect of anthocyanins on selected biochemical parameters in rats exposed to cadmium. Acta Biochem Polon 50:543–548Google Scholar
- 41.El-Manakhly EM, Youssef SA, Hassieb MM (1998) The protective effect of garlic against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicosis in male rats. Some histopathologic and histochemical studies. Egypt J Comp Pathol Clin Pathol 11:35–45Google Scholar
- 45.Morales AI, Vicente-Sanchez C, Jerkic M, Santiago JM, Sanchez-Gonzalez PD, Perez-Barriocanal F, Lopez-Novoa JM (2006) Effect of quercetin on metallothionein, nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-2 expression on experimental chronic cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 210:128–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar