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Xanthorrhizol Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Freund’s Complete Adjuvant-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease and a common cause of disability. This study is aimed to ascertain the therapeutic potentials of the xanthorrhizol against Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA)-stimulated RA in rats. The RA was initiated in the rats via injecting FCA (0.1 ml) subcutaneously and then treated with xanthorrhizol (20 mg/kg) for 25 days. The hematological markers were investigated using the automated hematological analyzer. The organ index (spleen and thymus) and paw volume were inspected by standard methods. The ALP, SGOT, and SGPT activities were examined using kits. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, were inspected using assay kits. The status of MDA, SOD, CAT, GSH, COX-2, iNOS, and NF-κB was quantified using respective assay kits. The xanthorrhizol treatment appreciably improved the body weight and hematological parameters and reduced the arthritis score, organ index, and paw volume in the RA rats. The levels of RBCs and Hb were effectively improved, and activities of ALP, SGOT, and SGPT were decreased by the xanthorrhizol in the RA rats. The RA rats treated with 20 mg/kg of xanthorrhizol demonstrated the depleted IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels. The antioxidant markers SOD, CAT, and GSH were improved, and inflammatory biomarker levels such as COX-2, iNOS, and NF-κB were decreased by the xanthorrhizol in the RA rats. Overall, these outcomes witnessed that the xanthorrhizol effectively ameliorated the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and attenuated the RA in rats. Hence, it could be a talented anti-arthritic medication to treat RA.

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Data Availability

Not applicable.

Abbreviations

RA:

Rheumatoid arthritis

FCA:

Freund’s complete adjuvant

SGOT:

Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

SGPT:

Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase

IL:

Interleukin

MDA:

Malondialdehyde

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

CAT:

Catalase

GSH:

Glutathione

COX-2:

Cyclooxygenase-2

iNOS:

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

RBCs:

Red blood cells

WBCs:

White blood cells

Hb:

Hemoglobin

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Zhou, M., Li, Y., Hou, H. et al. Xanthorrhizol Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Freund’s Complete Adjuvant-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-04091-4

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Keywords

  • Cyclooxygenase-2
  • Interleukin-1β
  • Xanthorrhizol
  • Hemoglobin
  • Arthritis
  • Inflammation