Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 187, Issue 4, pp 1272–1284 | Cite as

pH-Based Detection of Target Analytes in Diluted Serum Samples Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor

  • Dharitri Rath
  • Satyendra Kumar
  • Siddhartha PandaEmail author


Detection of minute quantities of target antigens in serum samples (consisting of a mixture of proteins/biomolecules) can be achieved by enhancement of the capture efficiencies of heterogeneous immunosensors. An important process parameter which affects the capture of target analytes in such immunosensors is the pH of the solution as the target proteins present in the serum samples are charged molecules. Here, we investigated the capture of prostate-specific antigens (PSAs), first in a mixed-analyte system wherein the solution contained two other non-specific proteins along with the target analyte, using the surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. There are no reports on the detection of antigens in a mixed system based on the optimization of the pH values of the carrier fluid, and this is the motivation of the present work. Further, we studied interference effects caused by the presence of these non-specific proteins in the mixed-analyte systems by artificially increasing the ratio of the interfering proteins to that of the target protein. Eventually PSA spiked into the rabbit serum samples was captured through the optimization of the pH of the solution. We could detect PSA in the serum samples when diluted to 100 times or more, where the amounts of other interfering proteins were ~ 66 times that of the amount of PSA. This study proposes a heterogeneous immunosensor to detect the target analytes in the diluted serum samples by tuning pH the of solution mixture, which can be utilized to detect disease biomarkers in serum samples.


Mixed analyte Surface plasmon resonance Serum Prostate specific antigens 


Funding information

Financial support was provided by the DST Science and Engineering Research Board, India (Grant No. SB/S3/CE/055/2013).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Samtel Centre for Display TechnologiesIndian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia

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