Arcopilus aureus, a Resveratrol-Producing Endophyte from Vitis vinifera
Resveratrol is extensively being used as a therapeutic moiety, as well as a pharmacophore for development of new drugs due to its multifarious beneficial effects. The objective of the present study was to isolate and screen the resveratrol-producing endophytic fungi from different varieties of Vitis vinifera. A total of 53 endophytic fungi belonging to different fungal genera were isolated from the stem and leaf tissues of Vitis vinifera (merlot, wild, pinot noir, Shiraz, muscat) from different grape-producing locations of India. Only 29 endophytic fungal isolates exhibited a positive test for phenolics by phytochemical methods. The resveratrol obtained after ethyl acetate extraction was confirmed using standard molecule on thin layer chromatography (TLC) with a retention factor (Rf) of 0.69. The purified and standard resveratrol were visualized under UV light as a violet-colored spot. In HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of culture broth of 11 endophytic isolates, the highest resveratrol content was found in #12VVLPM (89.1 μg/ml) followed by #18VVLPM (37.3 μg/ml) and 193VVSTPM (25.2 μg/ml) exhibiting a retention time of 3.36 min which corresponded to the standard resveratrol. The resveratrol-producing isolates belong to seven genera viz. Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Arcopilus, and Lasiodiplodia, and using morphological and molecular methods, #12VVLPM was identified as Arcopilus aureus.
KeywordsEndophyte Fungi Grapes Arcopilus sp. Resveratrol
The authors thank the Department of Biotechnology and TIFAC-CORE (Centre of Relevance and Excellence), Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Patiala, Punjab, for providing the necessary infrastructure to carry out the research work.
The authors thank the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India, New Delhi, for financial assistance through Project No. BT/PR9094/NDB/39/378/2013
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Jang, M. S., Cai, E. N., Udeani, G. O., Slowing, K. V., Thomas, C. F., Beecher, C. W. W., Fong, H. H. S., Farnsworth, N. R., Kinghorn, A. D., Mehta, R. G., Moon, R. C., & Pezzuto, J. M. (1997). Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science, 275(5297), 218–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Suryanarayanan, T. S., Venkatesan, G., & Murali, T. S. (2003). Endophytic fungal communities in leaves of tropical forest trees: diversity and distribution patterns. Current Science, 85(4), 489–492.Google Scholar
- 18.Al-Jumaily, E. F. A., Hamid, G. S., & Ali, K. F. (2014). Synthesis and total phenol content of new resveratrol derivative. American Journal of Advanced Drug Discovery, (2–3), 320–329.Google Scholar
- 19.Park, J., & Boo, Y. C. (2013). Isolation of resveratrol from Vitis viniferae caulis and its potent inhibition of human tyrosinase. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Article ID 645257.Google Scholar
- 22.White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. J. W. T., & Taylor, J. W. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In PCR Protocols: a Guide to Methods and Applications (Vol. 18, pp. 315–322).Google Scholar
- 25.Gonzalez-Coloma, A., Cosoveanu, A., Cabrera, R., Gimenez, C., & Kaushik, N. (2016). Endophytic fungi and their bioprospection. In S. K. Deshmukh, J. K. Misra, J. P. Tewari, & T. Papp (Eds.), Fungi: applications and management strategies (pp. 14–31). CRC Press.Google Scholar
- 27.Aly, A. H., Debbab, A., & Proksch, P. (2013). Fungal endophytes—secret producers of bioactive plant metabolites. An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 68(7), 499–505.Google Scholar
- 28.Kharwar, R. N., Kumar, A., Verma, V. C., & Redman, R. S. (2015). Book chapter Ajit Varma (Endophytes). Endophytic fungi: better players of biodiversity, stress tolerance, host protection and antimicrobial production. A textbook of molecular biotechnology, pp 1033–1057.Google Scholar
- 38.Mostert, L., Crous, P. W., & Petrini, O. (2000). Endophytic fungi associated with shoots and leaves of Vitis vinifera, with specific reference to the Phomopsis viticola complex. Sydowia, 52(1), 46–58.Google Scholar
- 39.Zeng, Q., Shi, J. L., & Liu, Y. L. (2012). Isolation and identification of a resveratrol-producing endophytic fungus from grape. Food Science, 33(13), 167–170.Google Scholar
- 41.Kharwar, R. N., Maurya, A. L., Verma, V. C., Kumar, A., GOND, S. K., & Mishra, A. (2012). Diversity and antimicrobial activity of Endophytic fungal community isolated from medicinal plant Cinnamomum camphora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 82(4), 557–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Musetti, R., Vecchione, A., Stringher, L., Borselli, S., Zulini, L., Marzani, C., D’Ambrosio, M., di Toppi, L. S., & Pertot, I. (2006). Inhibition of sporulation and ultrastructural alterations of grapevine downy mildew by the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata. Phytopathology, 96(7), 689–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Casieri, L., Hofstetter, V. A. L. É. R. I. E., Viret, O. L. I. V. I. E. R., & Gindro, K. A. T. I. A. (2009). Fungal communities living in the wood of different cultivars of young Vitis vinifera plants. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 48(1), 73–83.Google Scholar
- 46.Saitou, N., & Nei, M. (1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4(4), 406–425.Google Scholar
- 47.Somrithipol, S. (2004). Coprophilous fungi. In E. B. G. Jones, M. Tanticharoen, & K. D. Hyde (Eds.), Thai fungal diversity (pp. 119–128). Thailand: BIOTEC.Google Scholar
- 48.Soytong, K., & Quimio, T. H. (1989). A taxonomic study on the Philippine species of Chaetomium. The Philippine agriculturist, 72(1), 59–72.Google Scholar