Bioethanol was produced using polysaccharide from soybean residue as biomass by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). This study focused on pretreatment, enzyme saccharification, and fermentation. Pretreatment to obtain monosaccharide was carried out with 20% (w/v) soybean residue slurry and 270 mmol/L H2SO4 at 121 °C for 60 min. More monosaccharide was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with a 16 U/mL mixture of commercial enzymes C-Tec 2 and Viscozyme L at 45 °C for 48 h. Ethanol fermentation with 20% (w/v) soybean residue hydrolysate was performed using wild-type and Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 1129 adapted to high concentrations of galactose, using a flask and 5-L fermenter. When the wild type of S. cerevisiae was used, an ethanol production of 20.8 g/L with an ethanol yield of 0.31 g/g consumed glucose was obtained. Ethanol productions of 33.9 and 31.6 g/L with ethanol yield of 0.49 g/g consumed glucose and 0.47 g/g consumed glucose were obtained in a flask and a 5-L fermenter, respectively, using S. cerevisiae adapted to a high concentration of galactose. Therefore, adapted S. cerevisiae to galactose could enhance the overall ethanol fermentation yields compared to the wild-type one.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Martinelli, L. A., & Filoso, S. (2008). Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges. Ecological Applications, 18, 885–898.
Shigechi, H., Koh, J., Fujita, Y., Matsumoto, T., Bito, Y., Ueda, M., Satoh, E., Fukuda, H., & Kondo, A. (2004). Direct production of ethanol from raw corn starch via fermentation by use of a novel surface-engineered yeast strain codisplaying glucoamylase and alpha amylase. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 5037–5040.
Nguyen, Q. A., Yang, J., & Bae, H. J. (2017). Bioethanol production from individual and mixed agricultural biomass residues. Industrial Crops and Products, 95, 718–725.
Saini, J. K., Saini, R., & Tewari, L. (2015). Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments. 3 Biotechnology, 5, 337–353.
Letti, L. A. J., Karp, S. G., Woiciechowski, A. L., & Soccol, C. R. (2012). Ethanol production from soybean molasses by Zymomonas mobilis. Biomass and Bioenergy, 44, 80–86.
Schirmer-Michel, A. C., Flôres, S. H., Hertz, P. F., Matos, G. S., & Ayub, M. A. Z. (2008). Production of ethanol from soybean hull hydrolysate. Bioresource Technology, 99, 2898–2904.
Khare, S. K., Jha, K., & Gandhi, A. P. (1995). Citric acid production from Okara (soy-residue) by solid-state fermentation. Bioresource Technology, 54, 323–325.
O’toole, D. K. (1999). Characteristics and use of Okara, the soybean residue from soy milk productions: a review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 363–371.
Yoshii, H., Furuta, T., Maeda, H., & Mori, H. (1996). Hydrolysis kinetics of Okara and characterization of its water-soluble polysaccharides. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry, 60, 1406–1409.
Mielenz, J. R. (2011). Ethanol production from biomass: technology and commercialization status. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 4, 324–329.
Cotana, F., Cavalaglio, G., Gelosia, M., Coccia, V., Petrozzi, A., Ingles, D., & Pompili, E. (2015). A comparison between SHF and SSF processes from cardoon for ethanol production. Industrial Crops and Products, 69, 424–432.
Marques, S., Alves, L., Roseiro, J. C., & Gírio, F. M. (2008). Conversion of recycled paper sludge to ethanol by SHF and SSF using Pichia stipitis. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32, 400–406.
Wirawan, F., Cheng, C. L., Kao, W. C., Lee, D. J., & Chang, J. S. (2012). Cellulosic ethanol production performance with SSF and SHF processes using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis. Applied Energy, 100, 19–26.
Ra, C. H., Jeong, G. T., Shin, M. K., & Kim, S. K. (2013). Biotransformation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by Scheffersomyces stipitis during ethanol fermentation of hydrolysate of the seaweed Gelidium amansii. Bioresource Technology, 140, 421–425.
Park, J. H., Hong, J. Y., Jang, H. C., Oh, S. G., Kim, S. H., Yoon, J. J., & Kim, Y. J. (2012). Use of Gelidium amansii as a promising resource for bioethanol: a practical approach for continuous dilute-acid hydrolysis and fermentation. Bioresource Technology, 108, 83–88.
Siqueira, P. F., Karp, S. G., Carvalho, J. C., Sturm, W., Rodríguez-León, J. A., Tholozan, J. L., Singhania, R. R., Pandey, A., & Soccol, C. R. (2008). Production of bio-ethanol from soybean molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at laboratory, pilot and industrial scales. Bioresource Technology, 99, 8156–8163.
AOAC (Association of Official Analysis Chemists). (1995). Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists (16th ed.). Arlington: Association of Official Analysis Chemists.
Choi, I. S., Kim, Y. G., Jung, J. K., & Bae, H. J. (2015). Soybean waste (okara) as a valorization biomass for the bioethanol production. Energy, 93, 1742–1747.
Redding, A. P., Wang, Z., Keshwani, D. R., & Cheng, J. J. (2011). High temperature dilute acid pretreatment of coastal Bermuda grass for enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresource Technology, 102, 1415–1424.
Saha, B. C., Iten, L. B., Cotta, M. A., & Wu, Y. V. (2005). Dilute acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation of rice hulls to ethanol. Biotechnology Progress, 21, 816–822.
Ra, C. H., Kim, Y. J., Lee, S. Y., Jeong, G. T., & Kim, S. K. (2015). Effects of galactose adaptation in yeast for ethanol fermentation from red seaweed, Gracilaria verrucosa. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 38, 1715–1722.
van Maris, A. J. A., Abbott, D. A., Bellissimi, E., van den Brink, J., Kuyper, M., Luttik, M. A., Wisselink, H. W., Scheffers, W. A., van Dijken, J. P., & Pronk, J. T. (2006). Alcoholic fermentation of carbon sources in biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: current status. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 90, 391–418.
Meinita, M. D. N., Kang, J. Y., Jeong, G. T., Koo, H. M., Park, S. M., & Hong, Y. K. (2011). Bioethanol production from the acid hydrolysate of the carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii). Journal of Applied Phycology, 24, 857–862.
Lin, T. H., Guo, G. L., Hwang, W. S., & Huang, S. L. (2016). The addition of hydrolyzed rice straw in xylose fermentation by Pichia stipitis to increase bioethanol production at the pilot-scale. Biomass and Bioenergy, 91, 204–209.
Khambhaty, Y., Mody, K., Gandhi, M. R., Thampy, S., Maiti, P., Prahmbhatt, H., Eswaran, K., & Ghosh, P. K. (2012). Kappaphycus alvarezii as a source of bioethanol. Bioresource Technology, 103, 180–185.
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1D1A1A09918683).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Nguyen, T.H., Ra, C.H., Sunwoo, I.Y. et al. Bioethanol Production from Soybean Residue via Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 184, 513–523 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-017-2565-6
- Enzymatic saccharification
- Soybean residue
- Thermal acid hydrolysis