Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 182, Issue 2, pp 653–668 | Cite as

Metabolite Variation in Lean and Obese Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Rats via 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics Approach

  • Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak
  • Ahmed Mediani
  • Maulidiani
  • Amin Ismail
  • Faridah AbasEmail author


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as a complex metabolic disease because it affects the metabolism of glucose and other metabolites. Although many diabetes studies have been conducted in animal models throughout the years, the pathogenesis of this disease, especially between lean diabetes (ND + STZ) and obese diabetes (OB + STZ), is still not fully understood. In this study, the urine from ND + STZ, OB + STZ, lean/control (ND), and OB + STZ rats were collected and compared by using 1H NMR metabolomics. The results from multivariate data analysis (MVDA) showed that the diabetic groups (ND + STZ and OB + STZ) have similarities and dissimilarities for a certain level of metabolites. Differences between ND + STZ and OB + STZ were particularly noticeable in the synthesis of ketone bodies, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), and sensitivity towards the oral T2DM diabetes drug metformin. This finding suggests that the ND + STZ group was more similar to the T1DM model and OB + STZ to the T2DM model. In addition, we also managed to identify several pathways and metabolism aspects shared by obese (OB) and OB + STZ. The results from this study are useful in developing drug target-based research as they can increase understanding regarding the cause and effect of DM.


Metabolomics Diabetes Nuclear magnetic resonance Metabolic pathways 



This work was supported by the Research University Grant from Universiti Putra Malaysia (Grant No. 9362200). The first author acknowledges the support from the Ministry of Education Malaysia for a scholarship under the MyBrain Science Scheme.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Approval for the animal study was obtained from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of the Faculty Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (IACUC No. UPM/FPSK/PADS/BRUUH/00490).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of BioscienceUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and TechnologyUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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