Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Use of Crude Glycerol as Sole Carbon Source for Microbial Lipid Production by Oleaginous Yeasts

  • 531 Accesses

  • 12 Citations

Abstract

Crude glycerol, discharged from biodiesel production process, is a potential carbon source for microbial lipid production. The capability of using crude glycerol as sole carbon source for microbial lipid production by oleaginous yeasts Trichosporon fermentans and Trichosporon cutaneum was investigated for the first time. T. fermentans and T. cutaneum could use crude glycerol for efficient lipid production, and the optimal glycerol concentration for which were 50 and 70 g/L, respectively. The optimum nitrogen source, C/N, inoculum concentration, and pH were yeast extract + peptone, 60, 10.0%, and 6.0, respectively. The most suitable culture temperature for T. fermentans and T. cutaneum were 28 and 30 °C, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum biomass, lipid content, lipid yield, and lipid coefficient of T. fermentans and T. cutaneum were 16.0 g/L, 32.4%, 5.2 g/L, and 16.5%, and 17.4 g/L, 32.2%, 5.6 g/L, and 17.0%, respectively. Moreover, it was found that methanol present in the crude glycerol had minor influence on the lipid production. Addition of surfactant potassium oleate into the medium could slightly stimulate the cell growth and lipid accumulation of both yeasts. This study shows that T. fermentans and T. cutaneum are promising strains for lipid production on crude glycerol.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. 1.

    Tolmac, D., Prulovic, S., Lambic, M., Radovanovic, L., & Tolmac, J. (2014). Global trends on production and utilization of biodiesel. Energy Sources Part B-Economics Planning and Policy, 9, 130–139.

  2. 2.

    Leung, D. Y. C., Wu, X., & Leung, M. K. H. (2010). A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Applied Energy, 87, 1083–1095.

  3. 3.

    Huang, C., Zong, M. H., Wu, H., & Liu, Q. P. (2009). Microbial oil production from rice straw hydrolysate by Trichosporon fermentans. Bioresource Technology, 100, 4535–4538.

  4. 4.

    Huang, L. H., Zhang, B., Gao, B. Y., & Sun, G. P. (2011). Application of fishmeal wastewater as a potential low-cost medium for lipid production by Lipomyces starkeyi HL. Environmental Technology, 32, 1975–1981.

  5. 5.

    Zhu, L. Y., Zong, M. H., & Wu, H. (2008). Efficient lipid production with Trichosporon fermentans and its use for biodiesel preparation. Bioresource Technology, 99, 7881–7885.

  6. 6.

    Yang, X. B., Jin, G. J., Gong, Z. W., Shen, H. W., Bai, F. W., & Zhao, Z. B. K. (2014). Recycling biodiesel-derived glycerol by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4 through the two-stage lipid production process. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 91, 86–91.

  7. 7.

    Anand, P., & Saxena, R. K. (2012). A comparative study of solvent-assisted pretreatment of biodiesel derived crude glycerol on growth and 1,3-propanediol production from Citrobacter freundii. New Biotechnology, 29, 199–205.

  8. 8.

    Yang, F. X., Hanna, M. A., & Sun, R. C. (2012). Value-added uses for crude glycerol-a byproduct of biodiesel production. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 5, 13.

  9. 9.

    Mu, Y., Xiu, Z. L., & Zhang, D. J. (2008). A combined bioprocess of biodiesel production by lipase with microbial production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 40, 537–541.

  10. 10.

    Sestric, R., Munch, G., Cicek, N., Sparling, R., & Levin, D. B. (2014). Growth and neutral lipid synthesis by Yarrowia lipolytica on various carbon substrates under nutrient-sufficient and nutrient-limited conditions. Bioresource Technology, 164, 41–46.

  11. 11.

    Leiva-Candia, D. E., Tsakona, S., Kopsahelis, N., Garcia, I. L., Papanikolaou, S., Dorado, M. P., & Koutinas, A. A. (2015). Biorefining of by-product streams from sunflower-based biodiesel production plants for integrated synthesis of microbial oil and value-added co-products. Bioresource Technology, 190, 57–65.

  12. 12.

    Duarte, S. H., Ghiselli, G., & Maugeri, F. (2013). Influence of culture conditions on lipid production by Candida sp. LEB-M3 using glycerol from biodiesel synthesis. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 2, 339–343.

  13. 13.

    Kitcha, S., & Cheirsilp, B. (2013). Enhancing lipid production from crude glycerol by newly isolated oleaginous yeasts: strain selection, process optimization, and fed-batch strategy. Bioenergy Research, 6, 300–310.

  14. 14.

    Tchakouteu, S. S., Kalantzi, O., Gardeli, C., Koutinas, A. A., Aggelis, G., & Papanikolaou, S. (2015). Lipid production by yeasts growing on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol: strain selection and impact of substrate concentration on the fermentation efficiency. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 118, 911–927.

  15. 15.

    Chi, Z. Y., Pyle, D., Wen, Z. Y., Frear, C., & Chen, S. L. (2007). A laboratory study of producing docosahexaenoic acid from biodiesel-waste glycerol by microalgal fermentation. Process Biochemistry, 42, 1537–1545.

  16. 16.

    Papanikolaou, S., Fakas, S., Fick, M., Chevalot, I., Galiotou-Panayotou, M., Komaitis, M., Marc, I., & Aggelis, G. (2008). Biotechnological valorisation of raw glycerol discharged after bio-diesel (fatty acid methyl esters) manufacturing process: production of 1,3-propanediol, citric acid and single cell oil. Biomass & Bioenergy, 32, 60–71.

  17. 17.

    Chatzifragkou, A., Makri, A., Belka, A., Bellou, S., Mavrou, M., Mastoridou, M., Mystrioti, P., Onjaro, G., Aggelis, G., & Papanikolaou, S. (2011). Biotechnological conversions of biodiesel derived waste glycerol by yeast and fungal species. Energy, 36, 1097–1108.

  18. 18.

    Hu, C. M., Wu, S. G., Wang, Q., Jin, G. J., Shen, H. W., & Zhao, Z. B. K. (2011). Simultaneous utilization of glucose and xylose for lipid production by Trichosporon cutaneum. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 4, 25.

  19. 19.

    Xu, J. Y., Zhao, X. B., Wang, W. C., Du, W., & Liu, D. H. (2012). Microbial conversion of biodiesel byproduct glycerol to triacylglycerols by oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides and the individual effect of some impurities on lipid production. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 65, 30–36.

  20. 20.

    Pyle, D. J., Garcia, R. A., & Wen, Z. Y. (2008). Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae from blodiesel-derived crude glycerol: effects of impurities on DHA production and algal biomass composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 3933–3939.

  21. 21.

    Liu, L. P., Hu, Y., Wen, P., Li, N., Zong, M. H., Ou-Yang, B. N., & Wu, H. (2015). Evaluating the effects of biocompatible cholinium ionic liquids on microbial lipid production by Trichosporon fermentans. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 8, 119.

  22. 22.

    Liang, Y. N., Cui, Y., Trushenski, J., & Blackburn, J. W. (2010). Converting crude glycerol derived from yellow grease to lipids through yeast fermentation. Bioresource Technology, 101, 7581–7586.

  23. 23.

    Cheirsilp, B., Kitcha, S., & Torpee, S. (2012). Co-culture of an oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and a microalga Chlorella vulgaris for biomass and lipid production using pure and crude glycerol as a sole carbon source. Annals of Microbiology, 62, 987–993.

  24. 24.

    Hansson, L., & Dostálek, M. (1986). Effect of culture conditions on fatty acid composition in lipids produced by the yeast Cryptococcus albidus var. albidus. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 63, 1179–1184.

  25. 25.

    Poli, J. S., Neres da Silva, M. A., Siqueira, E. P., Pasa, V. M. D., Rosa, C. A., & Valente, P. (2014). Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology, 161, 320–326.

  26. 26.

    Saenge, C., Cheirsilp, B., Suksaroge, T. T., & Bourtoom, T. (2011). Potential use of oleaginous red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis for the bioconversion of crude glycerol from biodiesel plant to lipids and carotenoids. Process Biochemistry, 46, 210–218.

  27. 27.

    Dobrowolski, A., Mitula, P., Rymowicz, W., & Mironczuk, A. M. (2016). Efficient conversion of crude glycerol from various industrial wastes into single cell oil by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Bioresource Technology, 207, 237–243.

  28. 28.

    Huang, C., Cui, X. X., Wu, H., Lou, W. Y., & Zong, M. H. (2014). The effect of different factors on microbial oil production by Trichosporon fermentans on rice straw acid hydrolysate. International Journal of Green Energy, 11, 787–795.

  29. 29.

    Chen, X. F., Huang, C., Yang, X. Y., Xiong, L., Chen, X. D., & Ma, L. L. (2013). Evaluating the effect of medium composition and fermentation condition on the microbial oil production by Trichosporon cutaneum on corncob acid hydrolysate. Bioresource Technology, 143, 18–24.

  30. 30.

    Wu, H., Li, Y. Y., Chen, L., & Zong, M. H. (2011). Production of microbial oil with high oleic acid content by Trichosporon capitatum. Applied Energy, 88, 138–142.

  31. 31.

    Koike, Y., Cai, H. J., Higashiyama, K., Fujikawa, S., & Park, E. Y. (2001). Effect of consumed carbon to nitrogen ratio on mycelial morphology and arachidonic acid production in cultures of Mortierella alpina. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 91, 382–389.

  32. 32.

    Fakas, S., Papanikolaou, S., Batsos, A., Galiotou-Panayotou, M., Mallouchos, A., & Aggelis, G. (2009). Evaluating renewable carbon sources as substrates for single cell oil production by Cunninghamella echinulata and Mortierella isabellina. Biomass & Bioenergy, 33, 573–580.

  33. 33.

    Salakkam, A., & Webb, C. (2015). The inhibition effect of methanol, as a component of crude glycerol, on the growth rate of Cupriavidus necator and other micro-organisms. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 98, 84–90.

  34. 34.

    Huffer, S., Clark, M. E., Ning, J. C., Blanch, H. W., & Clark, D. S. (2011). Role of alcohols in growth, lipid composition, and membrane fluidity of yeasts, bacteria, and archaea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 6400–6408.

  35. 35.

    Chatzifragkou, A., & Papanikolaou, S. (2012). Effect of impurities in biodiesel-derived waste glycerol on the performance and feasibility of biotechnological processes. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 95, 13–27.

  36. 36.

    Pachapur, V. L., Sarma, S. J., Brar, S. K., Bihan, Y. L., Buelna, G., & Verma, M. (2016). Surfactant mediated enhanced glycerol uptake and hydrogen production from biodiesel waste using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and Clostridium butyricum. Renewable Energy, 95, 542–551.

  37. 37.

    Xu, J. Y., Du, W., Zhao, X. B., & Liu, D. H. (2016). Renewable microbial lipid production from oleaginous yeast: some surfactants greatly improved lipid production of Rhodosporidium toruloides. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 32, 1–9.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (No. 2015A030313217), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31671852), and the Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province (No. 2013B010404005) for financial support.

Author information

Correspondence to Hong Wu or Min-hua Zong.

Additional information

Li-ping Liu and Yang Hu have the same contribution and are co-first authors.

Electronic supplementary material

Supplementary Fig. 1

(DOCX 101 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 2

(DOCX 46 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 3

(DOCX 166 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, L., Hu, Y., Lou, W. et al. Use of Crude Glycerol as Sole Carbon Source for Microbial Lipid Production by Oleaginous Yeasts. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 182, 495–510 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-016-2340-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Microbial lipid production
  • Oleaginous yeast
  • Crude glycerol
  • Methanol
  • Surfactant