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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 174, Issue 3, pp 880–896 | Cite as

Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Food Toxin Detection

  • Bansi D. MalhotraEmail author
  • Saurabh Srivastava
  • Md. Azahar Ali
  • Chandan Singh
Article

Abstract

There is an increased interest toward the development of bioelectronic devices for food toxin (mycotoxins) detection. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi like Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium that are frequently found in crops or during storage of food including cereals, nuts, fruits, etc. The contamination of food by mycotoxins has become a matter of increasing concern. High levels of mycotoxins in the diet can cause adverse, acute, and chronic effects on human health and a variety of animal species. Side effects may particularly affect the liver, kidney, nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system. Among 300 mycotoxins known till date, there are a few that are considered to play an important part in food safety, and for these, a range of analytical methods have been developed. Some of the important mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, citreoviridin, patulin, citrinin, and zearalenon. The conventional methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally require sophisticated instrumentation, e.g., liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. Hence, new analysis tools are necessary to attain more sensitive, specific, rapid, and reliable information about the desired toxin. For the last about two decades, the research and development of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has aroused much interest due to their simplicity and sensitivity. The nanomaterials have recently had a great impact on the development of biosensors. The functionalized nanomaterials are used as catalytic tools, immobilization platforms, or as optical or electroactive labels to improve the biosensing performance to obtain higher sensitivity, stability, and selectivity. Nanomaterials, such as carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and graphene), metal nanoparticles, nanowires, nanocomposites, and nanostructured metal oxide nanoparticles are playing an increasing role in the design of sensing and biosensing systems for mycotoxin determination. Furthermore, these nanobiosystems are also bringing advantages in terms of the design of novel food toxin detection strategies. We will focus on some of the recent results related to fabrication of nanomaterial-based biosensors for food toxin detection obtained in our laboratories.

Keywords

Food toxins Mycotoxins Nanomaterials Carbon nano materials Graphene oxide 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr Anchal Srivastava (Banaras Hindu University, India) and Dr G. Sumana (CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, India) for interesting discussions. S.S. acknowledges the financial support from CSIR (SRF: 31/001(0302)/2008-EMRI), New Delhi, India. The financial support received from Department of Science and Technology, India (Grant No. DST/TSG/ME/2008/18) and Indian Council of Medical Research, India (Grant No. ICMR/5/3/8/91/GM/2010-RHN) is gratefully acknowledged.

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    Accepted in the special issue on Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2014. doi: 10.1007/s12010-014-0965-4.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bansi D. Malhotra
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Saurabh Srivastava
    • 2
  • Md. Azahar Ali
    • 2
  • Chandan Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyDelhi Technological UniversityDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Science and Technology Center on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation SectionCSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia

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