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Luminol-Based Chemiluminescent Signals: Clinical and Non-clinical Application and Future Uses

Abstract

Chemiluminescence (CL) is an important method for quantification and analysis of various macromolecules. A wide range of CL agents such as luminol, hydrogen peroxide, fluorescein, dioxetanes and derivatives of oxalate, and acridinium dyes are used according to their biological specificity and utility. This review describes the application of luminol chemiluminescence (LCL) in forensic, biomedical, and clinical sciences. LCL is a very useful detection method due to its selectivity, simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity. LCL has a dynamic range of applications, including quantification and detection of macro and micromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and RNA. Luminol-based methods are used in environmental monitoring as biosensors, in the pharmaceutical industry for cellular localization and as biological tracers, and in reporter gene-based assays and several other immunoassays. Here, we also provide information about different compounds that may enhance or inhibit the LCL along with the effect of pH and concentration on LCL. This review covers most of the significant information related to the applications of luminol in different fields.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants DK040163 to W.S.S. and DK52194, DK068839 and AI44458 to J.A.C. We thank Tracey Baird and Shirley Bratcher for the editorial assistance in preparing this manuscript. MIH is thankful to the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSTF) for the Award of an IUSTF fellowship. PK and DI thank the Indian Council of Medical Research and University Grants commissions, respectively, for the award of fellowship.

Patent information

Waheed et al., Patent NO: US 7674629 B2, Dated: March 9, 2010.

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Correspondence to Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan.

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Khan, P., Idrees, D., Moxley, M.A. et al. Luminol-Based Chemiluminescent Signals: Clinical and Non-clinical Application and Future Uses. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173, 333–355 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-014-0850-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-014-0850-1

Keywords

  • Luminol
  • Chemiluminescence
  • Electrochemiluminescence
  • Cellular localization
  • Reporter gene assay
  • Forensic science