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Machinability studies on AA–SiC–TIO2 based heat treated HMMC with negative polarity electrode using EDM

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Sustainability is vital in manufacturing industries for the fabricating products with economic, social and environmental attention. The current study uses stir casting fabricating methodology to manufacture aluminium LM25 alloy reinforced with 7.5 wt.% Silicon Carbide (SiC) and 2.5 wt.% Titanium Oxide (TiO2) hybrid metal matrix composite (HMMC). The microstructural and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis is supported to confirm hybrid reinforcement’s existence and even distribution in the aluminium matrix. The Vicker’s hardness of 110.25 HV is measured for the manufactured composite. The machinability behaviour of the fabricated HMMC is studied using electrical discharge machining (EDM) to achieve the optimum material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) through Taguchi integrated grey relational analysis (TGRA). To get the best machining results, the impact of machining process variables such as pulse on time (Ton), current (I), and voltage (V) was examined. To determine the importance of process variables on the machining responses, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was also conducted. The optimum machining process variables were revealed concerning the machining process variables such as pulse on time 100 μs, current 6 A, and voltage 25 V. ANOVA analysis confirmed that the current with a percentage significance of 71.52%, is the most important EDM machining process variable followed by pulse on time and voltage. Further, the machined surface is examined through a hi-resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) and 3D optical profilometer. The formation of a white layer, craters and bubbles on the machined area are observed for varying machining conditions. The fabricated HMMC can be utilized in the automobile applications such as pistons, brake discs, gears and cylinders.

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Analysis of variance


Electrical discharge machining


Energy dispersive spectroscopy


Hybrid metal matrix composite


Hi-resolution scanning electron microscope




Material removal rate


Silicon carbide


Surface roughness


Taguchi integrated grey relational analysis

TiO2 :

Titanium oxide


Pulse on time




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This research work is financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (Grant No. FENU-2023-0013).

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All the authors have contributed to the concept, experiment, testing, analysis, and manuscript writing.

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Correspondence to D. Elil Raja.

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Prathap Singh, S., Suresh Kumar, S., Elil Raja, D. et al. Machinability studies on AA–SiC–TIO2 based heat treated HMMC with negative polarity electrode using EDM. Int J Interact Des Manuf (2023).

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