Skip to main content

The effect of glass transition temperature of commercial epoxy–amine coatings on their performance in marine environment


Glass transition temperature (Tg) of the commercial epoxy–amine marine coatings is among the most important thermo-mechanical properties which determine the performance of the individual coat and the whole coating system. Ingress of (sea) water and temperature are known to have an influence on the Tg of model epoxy–amine coatings. This work shows the use of thermal analysis techniques like temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to study the effect of water immersion and immersion temperature on the Tg of four different commercial epoxy–amine coatings. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study the chemical changes that occurred in the epoxy–amine network upon immersion in water at 40 and 60°C. The results obtained clearly show that the Tg is significantly influenced by water and water immersion temperature if the Tg (or the Tg region) of the epoxy–amine coating is lower than the immersion temperature. FTIR results showed that chemical changes can happen in the epoxy–amine network upon water immersion. Practical example of the effect of Tg of coatings on their protective performance has been demonstrated by using the NACE TM-0174 standard’s equipment which showed that the low Tg epoxy–amine coatings will lose their protective properties earlier than the high Tg coatings when exposed to similar test conditions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. “Report Finds Epoxy Resins Hold Almost 40% Share of 2K Protective Coatings Revenue.” 2021; Available from:

  2. Montemor, MF, “Functional and Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection: A Review of Recent Advances.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 258 17–37 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Jackson, K, “Recent Advances in Water-Borne Protective Coatings.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 82 340–343 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Olajire, AA, “Recent Advances on Organic Coating System Technologies for Corrosion Protection of Offshore Metallic Structures.” J. Mol. Liq., 269 572–606 (2018)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Lyon, SB, Bingham, R, Mills, DJ, “Advances in Corrosion Protection by Organic Coatings: What We Know and What We Would Like to Know.” Prog. Org. Coat., 102 2–7 (2017)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Krauklis, AE, Echtermeyer, AT, “Mechanism of Yellowing: Carbonyl Formation During Hygrothermal Aging in a Common Amine Epoxy.” Polymers, 10 1097 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Krauklis, AE, Gagani, AI, Echtermeyer, AT, “Hygrothermal Aging of Amine Epoxy: Reversible Static and Fatigue Properties.” Open Eng., 8 447–454 (2018)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Toscano, A, Pitarresi, G, Scafidi, M, Di Filippo, M, Spadaro, G, Alessi, S, “Water Diffusion and Swelling Stresses in Highly Crosslinked Epoxy Matrices.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 133 255–263 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Rocha, IBCM, Raijmaekers, S, Nijssen, RPL, van der Meer, FP, Sluys, LJ, “Hygrothermal Ageing Behaviour of a Glass/Epoxy Composite Used in Wind Turbine Blades.” Compos. Struct., 174 110–122 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bruchet, A, Elyasmino, N, Decottignies, V, Noyon, N, “Leaching of Bisphenol A and F from New and Old Epoxy Coatings: Laboratory and Field Studies.” Water Supply, 14 383–389 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Vermeirssen, ELM, Dietschweiler, C, Werner, I, Burkhardt, M, “Corrosion Protection Products as a Source of Bisphenol A and Toxicity to the Aquatic Environment.” Water Res., 123 586–593 (2017)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Meiser, A, Willstrand, K, Possart, W, “Influence of Composition, Humidity, and Temperature on Chemical Aging in Epoxies: A Local Study of the Interphase with Air.” J. Adhes., 86 222–243 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Morsch, S, Liu, Y, Lyon, SB, Gibbon, SR, Gabriele, B, Malanin, M, Eichhorn, K-J, “Examining the Early Stages of Thermal Oxidative Degradation in Epoxy-Amine Resins.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 176 109147 (2020)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Odegard, GM, Bandyopadhyay, A, “Physical Aging of Epoxy Polymers and Their Composites.” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys., 49 1695–1716 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Perera, DY, “Physical Ageing of Organic Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 47 61–76 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Montserrat, S, “Physical Aging Studies in Epoxy Resins. I. Kinetics of the Enthalpy Relaxation Process in a Fully Cured Epoxy Resin.” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys., 32 509–522 (1994)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Fraga, F, López, M, Soto Tellini, VH, Rodríguez-Núñez, E, Martínez-Ageitos, JM, Miragaya, J, “Study of the Physical Aging of the Epoxy System BADGE n = 0/m-XDA/CaCO3.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 113 2456–2461 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Montserrat, S, Cortés, P, Calventus, Y, Hutchinson, JM, “Effect of Crosslink Length on the Enthalpy Relaxation of Fully Cured Epoxy–Diamine Resins.” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys., 38 456–468 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Rein, G, “High Temperature Crude Oil Testing of Tank Linings.” 2019; Available from:

  20. Verdonck, E, Schaap, K, Thomas, LC, “A Discussion of the Principles and Applications of Modulated Temperature DSC (MTDSC).” Int. J. Pharm., 192 3–20 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Bashir, MA, “Use of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) for Characterizing Interfacial Interactions in Filled Polymers.” Solids, 2 108–120 (2021)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Schlesing, W, Buhk, M, Osterhold, M, “Dynamic Mechanical Analysis in Coatings Industry.” Prog. Org. Coat., 49 197–208 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Warasitthinon, N, Robertson, CG, “Interpretation of the tanδ Peak Height for Particle-Filled Rubber and Polymer Nanocomposites with Relevance to tire Tread Performance Balance.” Rubber Chem. Technol., 91 577–594 (2018)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Robertson, CG, Lin, CJ, Rackaitis, M, Roland, CM, “Influence of Particle Size and Polymer−Filler Coupling on Viscoelastic Glass Transition of Particle-Reinforced Polymers.” Macromolecules, 41 2727–2731 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Li, K, Wang, K, Zhan, M-S, Xu, W, “The Change of Thermal–Mechanical Properties and Chemical Structure of Ambient Cured DGEBA/TEPA Under Accelerated Thermo-Oxidative Aging.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 98 2340–2346 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Delor-Jestin, F, Drouin, D, Cheval, PY, Lacoste, J, “Thermal and Photochemical Ageing of Epoxy Resin—Influence of Curing Agents.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 91 1247–1255 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Mailhot, B, Morlat-Thérias, S, Ouahioune, M, Gardette, J-L, “Study of the Degradation of an Epoxy/Amine Resin, 1.” Macromol. Chem. Phys., 206 575–584 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Miller, SG, Roberts, GD, Bail, JL, Kohlman, LW, Binienda, WK, “Effects of Hygrothermal Cycling on the Chemical, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of 862/W Epoxy Resin.” High Perform. Polym., 24 470–477 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muhammad Ahsan Bashir.

Ethics declarations

Competing interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bashir, M.A., Li, H. & Farstad, V.B. The effect of glass transition temperature of commercial epoxy–amine coatings on their performance in marine environment. J Coat Technol Res 20, 919–933 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: