Skip to main content

Effect of ink formulation on the inkjet printing process of Al–ZnO nanoparticles

Abstract

This study focuses on the inkjet printing of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) spherical and platelet nanoparticle-based nanoflakes with typical sizes ranging from 700 to 800 nm. The AZO nanoparticles were synthesized by aqueous precipitation. The preparation of the solvent-based inks was performed with the control of the viscosity, ink stability, and nanoparticle dispersion. The results showed that the viscosity for nanoparticle dispersions slightly changes (from 6.9 to 8.7 cPs) when the nanoparticles mass concentration increases from 1.8 to 10%. In order to achieve thin films of AZO nanoparticles, we optimized the printing process by real-time monitoring of drop velocity with a stroboscopic camera. This technology involves direct patterning of a functional material by tiny MEMS-jets on a flexible and rigid substrate at specific locations. The lowest concentration of AZO nanoparticles corresponding to 1.8% enables printing several times during the nanoparticle dispersions and the clogging of printhead nozzles is less pronounced. In our conditions, the optimum voltage value is 25 V to achieve a drop velocity from 7 to 9 m/s. In the case of nanospheres with 10% of AZO nanoparticles, for a large dropspace (90 \(\mu\)m), the individual printed droplets appear as a sequence of linear dots. When the drop spacing decreases to 75 \(\mu\)m, isolated drops start to overlap and merge. Further decrease in the drop spacing eliminates scalloping and leads finally to a regular and continuous layer at 55 \(\mu\)m.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Chen, KJ, Fang, TH, Hung, FY, Ji, LW, Chang, SJ, Young, SJ, Hsiao, YJ, “The Crystallization and Physical Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 254 (18) 5791–5795 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Chong, X, Li, L, Yan, X, Hu, D, Li, H, Wang, Y, “Synthesis, Characterization and Room Temperature Photoluminescence Properties of Al Doped ZnO Nanorods.” Physica E, 44 (10) 1399–1405 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hong, CS, Park, HH, Moon, J, Park, HH, “Effect of Metal (Al, Ga, and In)-Dopants and/or Ag-Nanoparticles on the Optical and Electrical Properties of ZnO Thin Films.” Thin Solid Films, 515 (3) 957–960 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Zhang, Y, Yang, Y, Zhao, J, Tan, R, Wang, W, Cui, P, Song, W, “Optical and Electrical Properties of Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.” J. Mater. Sci., 46 774–780 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Maldonado, F, Stashans, A, “Al-Doped ZnO: Electronic, Electrical and Structural Properties.” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 71 (5) 784–787 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Pearton, SJ, Ren, F, “Advances in ZnO-Based Materials for Light Emitting Diodes.” Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng., 3 51–55 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Lee, D, Ki Bae, W, Park, I, Yoon, DY, Lee, S, Lee, C, “Transparent Electrode with ZnO Nanoparticles in Tandem Organic Solar Cells.” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., 95 (1) 365–368 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Struk, P, Pustelny, T, Golaszewska, K, Borysiewicz, MA, Piotrowska, A, “Gas Sensors Based on ZnO Structures.” Acta Physica Polonica A, 124 (3) 567–569 (2013)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Deng, B, Wei, Q, Gao, W, “Physical Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Films Deposited on Nonwoven Substrates by Radio Frequence Magnetron Sputtering.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 5 393–397 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cheng, XL, Zhao, H, Huo, LH, Gao, S, Zhao, JG, “ZnO Nanoparticulate Thin Film: Preparation, Characterization and Gas-Sensing Property.” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 102 (2) 248–252 (2004)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Liang, YN, Lok, BK, Wang, L, Feng, C, Lu, ACW, Mei, T, Hu, X, “Effects of the Morphology of Inkjet Printed Zinc Oxide (ZnO) on Thin Film Transistor Performance and Seeded ZnO Nanorod Growth.” Thin Solid Films, 544 509–514 (2013)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Chaudhary, S, Umar, A, Bhasin, K, Baskoutas, S, “Chemical Sensing Applications of ZnO Nanomaterials.” Materials, 11 (287), 1–38 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Paraguay, F, Miki-Yoshida, DM, Morales, J, Solis, J, Estrada, W, “Influence of Al, In, Cu, Fe and Sn Dopants on the Response of Thin Film ZnO Gas Sensor to Ethanol Vapour.” Thin Solid Films, 373 (1–2) 137–140 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Yoo, R, Cho, S, Song, M-J, Lee, W, “Highly Sensitive Gas Sensor Based on Al-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles for Detection of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate as a Chemical Warfare Agent Simulant.” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 221 217–223 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Liu, L, Li, YF, Zeng, HB, “ZnO-Based Transparent Conductive Thin Films: Doping, Performance, and Processing.” J. Nanomat., 2013 (196521) 1–9 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Kim, W-H, Maeng, WJ, Kim, M-K, Kim, H, “Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide for Transparent Conducting Electrodes.” J. Electrochem. Soc., 158 (8) 495–499 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Tan, KC, Lee, YS, Yap, SL, Kok, SY, Nee, CH, Siew, WO, Tou, TY, Yap, SS, “Pulsed Laser Deposition of Al-Doped ZnO Films on Glass and Polycarbonate.” Journal of Nanophotonics, 8 (1) 084091 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Kumar, KDA, Valanarasu, S, Rosario, SR, Ganesh, V, Shkir, M, Sreelatha, CJ, Faify, S, “Evaluation of the Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of AZO Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition for Optoelectronics.” Solid State Sciences, 78 58–68 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Nayak, L, Mohanty, S, Nayak, SK, Ramadoss, A, “A Review on Inkjet Printing of Nanoparticle Inks for Flexible Electronics.” J. Mat. Chem. C, 7 (29) 8771–8795 (2019)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Juntunen, T, Jussila, H, Ruoho, M, Liu, S, Hu, G, “Inkjet Printed Large Area Flexible Few Layer Graphene Thermoelectrics.” Advanced Functional Materials, 28 (22) 1800480 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Calvert, P, “Inkjet Printing for Materials and Devices.” Chem. Mater., 13 (10) 3299–3305 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. van den Berg, AMJ, de Laat, AWM, Smith, PJ, Perelaer, J, Schubert, US, “Geometric Control of Inkjet Printed Features Using a Gelating Polymer.” J. Mat. Chem., 17 (7) 677–683 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Derby, B, “Bio Printing: Inkjet Printing Proteins and Hybrid Cell-Containing Materials and Structures.” J. Mat. Chem., 18 (47) 5717–5721 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. de Gans, B-J, Schubert, US, “Inkjet Printing of Well-Defined Polymer Dots and Arrays.” Langmuir, 20 (18) 7789–7793 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Reis, N, Ainsley, C, Derby, B, “Ink-Jet Delivery of Particle Suspensions by Piezoelectric Droplet Ejectors.” J. Appl. Phys., 97 (9) 094903 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Lee, A, Sudau, K, Ahn, KH, Lee, SJ, Willenbacher, N, “Optimization of Experimental Parameters to Suppress Nozzle Clogging in Inkjet Printing.” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51 (40) 13195–13204 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Giovannelli, F, Ndimba, A, Diaz-Chao, P, Motelica-Heino, M, Raynal, PI, Autret, C, Delorme, F, “Synthesis of Al-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles by Aqueous Coprecipitation.” Powder Technol., 262 203–208 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Sharma, S, Pande, SS, Swaminathan, P, “Top-Down Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Based Inks for Inkjet Printing.” RSC Advances, 7 39411–39419 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Matavž, A, Malič, B, “Inkjet Printing of Functional Oxide Nanostructures from Solution-Based Inks.” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol., 87 1–21 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Shin, K-Y, Lee, S-H, Oh, J, “Solvent and Substrate Effects on Inkjet-Printed Dots and Lines of Silver Nanoparticle Colloids.” J. Micromech. Microeng., 21 (4) 045012 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Diaz-Chao, P, Giovannelli, F, Lebedev, O, Chateigner, D, Lutterotti, L, Delorme, F, Guilmeau, E, “Textured Al-Doped ZnO Ceramics with Isotropic Grains.” J. Europ. Ceram. Soc., 34 (16) 4247–4256 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Georgieva, KL, Dijkstra, DJ, Fricke, H, Willenbacher, N, “Clogging of Microchannels by Nano-particles due to Hetero-coagulation in Elongational Flow.” J. Coll. Interface Sci., 352 (2) 265–277 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Magdassi, S, The Chemistry of Inkjet Inks. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2010

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This operation was co-financed by the European Union and the Region Centre-Val de Loire through the European Regional Development Fund. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the ARD2020 PIVOTS program and the Region Centre-Val de Loire, through the IMERSYOM project. Authors are grateful to the French GIS CERTeM consortium for cleanroom facilities.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Arnaud Stolz.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shavdina, O., Grillot, C., Stolz, A. et al. Effect of ink formulation on the inkjet printing process of Al–ZnO nanoparticles. J Coat Technol Res 18, 591–600 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-020-00427-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-020-00427-z

Keywords

  • Ink formulation
  • Aluminum-zinc oxide
  • Inkjet printing
  • Jetting parameters