Corrosion beneath a blister with high impedance

Abstract

In this work, the effect of blisters on the performance of protective coatings was investigated. Artificial blisters were generated by potentiostatic DC polarization of an epoxy-coated aluminum substrate and characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy (SEM), scanning electrochemical microscopy, as well as by scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) measurement. Impedance measured above blisters displayed high values, typical of an intact undamaged coating. SKP measurement above the blister identified regions of likely corrosion beneath it, which was verified by SEM. SEM images showed pitting-like corrosion beneath the blisters, implying that high impedance measured on delaminated coatings may correspond to the delaminated polymeric film. SKP was also able to identify regions of invisible delamination.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. 1.

    Koch, GH, Brongers, MPH, Thompson, NG, Virmani, YP, Payer, JH. “Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States.” Report by CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc. to Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Office of Infrastructure Research and Development, Report FHWA-RD-01-156 (2001)

  2. 2.

    Tedim, J, Poznyak, SK, Kuznetsova, A, Raps, D, Hack, T, Zheludkevich, ML, Ferreira, MGS, “Enhancement of Active Corrosion Protection via Combination of Inhibitor-Loaded Nanocontainers.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2 1528–1535 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1021/am100174t

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Lamaka, SV, Zheludkevich, ML, Yasakau, KA, Montemor, MF, Ferreira, MGS, “High Effective Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for 2024 Aluminium Alloy.” Electrochim. Acta, 52 7231–7247 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2007.05.058

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Montemor, MF, Snihirova, DV, Taryba, MG, Lamaka, SV, Kartsonakis, IA, Balaskas, AC, Kordas, GC, Tedim, J, Kuznetsova, A, Zheludkevich, ML, Ferreira, MGS, “Evaluation of Self-Healing Ability in Protective Coatings Modified with Combinations of Layered Double Hydroxides and Cerium Molibdate Nanocontainers Filled with Corrosion Inhibitors.” Electrochim. Acta, 60 31–40 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Twite, RL, Bierwagen, GP, “Review of Alternatives to Chromate for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Aerospace Alloys.” Prog. Org. Coat., 33 91–100 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-9440(98)00015-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Snihirova, D, Lamaka, SV, Taryba, M, Salak, AN, Kallip, S, Zheludkevich, ML, Ferreira, MGS, Montemor, MF, “Hydroxyapatite Microparticles as Feedback-Active Reservoirs of Corrosion Inhibitors.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2 3011–3022 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1021/am1005942

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Allahar, KN, Bierwagen, GP, Gelling, VJ, “Understanding AC–DC–AC Accelerated Test Results.” Corros. Sci., 52 1106–1114 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Allahar, KN, Hurley, MF, Sapper, ED, Butt, DP, “Simulation of the Relaxation Potential Profile of an AC–DC–AC test.” Int. J. Corros., 2014 1–12 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Bethencourt, M, Botana, FJ, Cano, MJ, Osuna, RM, Marcos, M, “Lifetime Prediction of Waterborne Acrylic Paints with the AC–DC–AC Method.” Prog. Org. Coat., 49 275–281 (2004)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Bard, AJ, Fan, FF, Kwak, J, Lev, O, “Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy. Introduction and Principles.” Anal. Chem., 61 132–138 (1989)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kwak, J, Bard, AJ, “Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy. Theory of the Feedback Mode.” Anal. Chem., 61 1221–1227 (1989)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Bard, AJ, Denuault, G, Lee, C, Mandler, D, Wipf, DO, “Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy: A New Technique for the Characterization and Modification of Surfaces.” Acc. Chem. Res., 23 357–363 (1990)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    González, S, Santana, JJ, González-García, Y, Fernández-Mérida, L, Souto, RM, “Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy for the Investigation of Localized Degradation Processes in Coated Metals: Effect of Oxygen.” Corros. Sci., 53 1910–1915 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Bastos, AC, Simões, AM, González, S, González-García, Y, Souto, RM, “Imaging Concentration Profiles of Redox-Active Species in Open-Circuit Corrosion Processes with the Scanning Electrochemical Microscope.” Electrochem. Commun., 6 1212–1215 (2004)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Simões, AM, Battocchi, D, Tallman, DE, Bierwagen, GP, “SVET and SECM Imaging of Cathodic Protection of Aluminium by a Mg-Rich Coating.” Corros. Sci., 49 3838–3849 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Fu, AQ, Cheng, YF, “Characterization of Corrosion of X65 Pipeline Steel Under Disbonded Coating by Scanning Kelvin Probe.” Corros. Sci., 51 914–920 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Stratmann, M, Streckel, H, Feser, R, “A New Technique Able to Measure Directly the Delamination of Organic Polymer Films.” Corros. Sci., 32 467–470 (1991)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Stratmann, M, Streckel, H, “On the Atmospheric Corrosion of Metals Which are Covered with Thin Electrolyte Layers. Verification of the Experimental Technique.” Corros. Sci., 30 (1990) 681–696 (1990)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Stratmann, M, Leng, A, Fürbeth, W, Streckel, H, Gehmecker, H, Große-Brinkhaus, KH, “The Scanning Kelvin Probe; a New Technique for the In Situ Analysis of the Delamination of Organic Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 27 261–267 (1996)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Wapner, K, Schoenberger, B, Stratmann, M, Grundmeier, G, “Height-Regulating Scanning Kelvin Probe for Simultaneous Measurement of Surface Topology and Electrode Potentials at Buried Polymer/Metal Interfaces.” J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 E114 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1856914

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Stratmann, M, “The Investigation of the Corrosion Properties of Metals, Covered with Adsorbed Electrolyte Layers—A New Experimental Technique.” Corros. Sci., 27 869–872 (1987)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Maier, B, Frankel, GS, “Behavior of Magnesium-Rich Primers on AA2024-T3.” Corrosion, 67 055001–1–055001–15 (2011). https://doi.org/10.5006/1.3586018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Fürbeth, W, Stratmann, M, “The Delamination of Polymeric Coatings from Electrogalvanised Steel—A Mechanistic Approach. Part 3: Delamination Kinetics and Influence of CO2.” Corros. Sci., 43 243–254 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Fürbeth, W, Stratmann, M, “The Delamination of Polymeric Coatings from Electrogalvanised Steel—A Mechanistic Approach. Part 1: Delamination from a Defect with Intact Zinc Layer.” Corros. Sci., 43 207–227 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Fürbeth, W, Stratmann, M, “The Delamination of Polymeric Coatings from Electrogalvanized Steel—A Mechanistic Approach. Part 2: Delamination from a Defect Down to Steel.” Corros. Sci., 43 229–241 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Bacon, RC, Smith, JJ, Rugg, FM, “Electrolytic Resistance in Evaluating Protective Merit of Coatings on Metals.” Ind. Eng. Chem., 40 161–167 (1948)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Bierwagen, GP, He, L, Li, J, Ellingson, L, Tallman, DE, “Studies of a New Accelerated Evaluation Method for Coating Corrosion Resistance—Thermal Cycling Testing.” Prog. Org. Coat., 39 67–78 (2000)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Souto, RM, Fernández-Mérida, L, González, S, “SECM Imaging of Interfacial Processes in Defective Organic Coatings Applied on Metallic Substrates Using Oxygen as Redox Mediator.” Electroanalysis, 21 2640–2646 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Nazarov, A, Le Bozec, N, Thierry, D, Le Calvé, P, Pautasso, JP, “Scanning Kelvin Probe Investigation of Corrosion Under Thick Marine Paint Systems Applied on Carbon Steel.” Corrosion, 68 720–729 (2012). https://doi.org/10.5006/0551

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vinod Upadhyay.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This paper was presented at the 15th Coatings Science International Conference on June 24–29, 2019, in Noordwijk, the Netherlands.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Upadhyay, V., Wiering, L., Bergseth, Z. et al. Corrosion beneath a blister with high impedance. J Coat Technol Res 17, 1105–1111 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-019-00280-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Coating
  • Corrosion
  • Blister
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • Delamination
  • Scanning Kelvin probe
  • Scanning electrochemical microscopy
  • Epoxy