In this work, the effect of blisters on the performance of protective coatings was investigated. Artificial blisters were generated by potentiostatic DC polarization of an epoxy-coated aluminum substrate and characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy (SEM), scanning electrochemical microscopy, as well as by scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) measurement. Impedance measured above blisters displayed high values, typical of an intact undamaged coating. SKP measurement above the blister identified regions of likely corrosion beneath it, which was verified by SEM. SEM images showed pitting-like corrosion beneath the blisters, implying that high impedance measured on delaminated coatings may correspond to the delaminated polymeric film. SKP was also able to identify regions of invisible delamination.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Koch, GH, Brongers, MPH, Thompson, NG, Virmani, YP, Payer, JH. “Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States.” Report by CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc. to Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Office of Infrastructure Research and Development, Report FHWA-RD-01-156 (2001)
Tedim, J, Poznyak, SK, Kuznetsova, A, Raps, D, Hack, T, Zheludkevich, ML, Ferreira, MGS, “Enhancement of Active Corrosion Protection via Combination of Inhibitor-Loaded Nanocontainers.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2 1528–1535 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1021/am100174t
Lamaka, SV, Zheludkevich, ML, Yasakau, KA, Montemor, MF, Ferreira, MGS, “High Effective Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for 2024 Aluminium Alloy.” Electrochim. Acta, 52 7231–7247 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2007.05.058
Montemor, MF, Snihirova, DV, Taryba, MG, Lamaka, SV, Kartsonakis, IA, Balaskas, AC, Kordas, GC, Tedim, J, Kuznetsova, A, Zheludkevich, ML, Ferreira, MGS, “Evaluation of Self-Healing Ability in Protective Coatings Modified with Combinations of Layered Double Hydroxides and Cerium Molibdate Nanocontainers Filled with Corrosion Inhibitors.” Electrochim. Acta, 60 31–40 (2012)
Twite, RL, Bierwagen, GP, “Review of Alternatives to Chromate for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Aerospace Alloys.” Prog. Org. Coat., 33 91–100 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-9440(98)00015-0
Snihirova, D, Lamaka, SV, Taryba, M, Salak, AN, Kallip, S, Zheludkevich, ML, Ferreira, MGS, Montemor, MF, “Hydroxyapatite Microparticles as Feedback-Active Reservoirs of Corrosion Inhibitors.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2 3011–3022 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1021/am1005942
Allahar, KN, Bierwagen, GP, Gelling, VJ, “Understanding AC–DC–AC Accelerated Test Results.” Corros. Sci., 52 1106–1114 (2010)
Allahar, KN, Hurley, MF, Sapper, ED, Butt, DP, “Simulation of the Relaxation Potential Profile of an AC–DC–AC test.” Int. J. Corros., 2014 1–12 (2014)
Bethencourt, M, Botana, FJ, Cano, MJ, Osuna, RM, Marcos, M, “Lifetime Prediction of Waterborne Acrylic Paints with the AC–DC–AC Method.” Prog. Org. Coat., 49 275–281 (2004)
Bard, AJ, Fan, FF, Kwak, J, Lev, O, “Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy. Introduction and Principles.” Anal. Chem., 61 132–138 (1989)
Kwak, J, Bard, AJ, “Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy. Theory of the Feedback Mode.” Anal. Chem., 61 1221–1227 (1989)
Bard, AJ, Denuault, G, Lee, C, Mandler, D, Wipf, DO, “Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy: A New Technique for the Characterization and Modification of Surfaces.” Acc. Chem. Res., 23 357–363 (1990)
González, S, Santana, JJ, González-García, Y, Fernández-Mérida, L, Souto, RM, “Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy for the Investigation of Localized Degradation Processes in Coated Metals: Effect of Oxygen.” Corros. Sci., 53 1910–1915 (2011)
Bastos, AC, Simões, AM, González, S, González-García, Y, Souto, RM, “Imaging Concentration Profiles of Redox-Active Species in Open-Circuit Corrosion Processes with the Scanning Electrochemical Microscope.” Electrochem. Commun., 6 1212–1215 (2004)
Simões, AM, Battocchi, D, Tallman, DE, Bierwagen, GP, “SVET and SECM Imaging of Cathodic Protection of Aluminium by a Mg-Rich Coating.” Corros. Sci., 49 3838–3849 (2007)
Fu, AQ, Cheng, YF, “Characterization of Corrosion of X65 Pipeline Steel Under Disbonded Coating by Scanning Kelvin Probe.” Corros. Sci., 51 914–920 (2009)
Stratmann, M, Streckel, H, Feser, R, “A New Technique Able to Measure Directly the Delamination of Organic Polymer Films.” Corros. Sci., 32 467–470 (1991)
Stratmann, M, Streckel, H, “On the Atmospheric Corrosion of Metals Which are Covered with Thin Electrolyte Layers. Verification of the Experimental Technique.” Corros. Sci., 30 (1990) 681–696 (1990)
Stratmann, M, Leng, A, Fürbeth, W, Streckel, H, Gehmecker, H, Große-Brinkhaus, KH, “The Scanning Kelvin Probe; a New Technique for the In Situ Analysis of the Delamination of Organic Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 27 261–267 (1996)
Wapner, K, Schoenberger, B, Stratmann, M, Grundmeier, G, “Height-Regulating Scanning Kelvin Probe for Simultaneous Measurement of Surface Topology and Electrode Potentials at Buried Polymer/Metal Interfaces.” J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 E114 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1856914
Stratmann, M, “The Investigation of the Corrosion Properties of Metals, Covered with Adsorbed Electrolyte Layers—A New Experimental Technique.” Corros. Sci., 27 869–872 (1987)
Maier, B, Frankel, GS, “Behavior of Magnesium-Rich Primers on AA2024-T3.” Corrosion, 67 055001–1–055001–15 (2011). https://doi.org/10.5006/1.3586018
Fürbeth, W, Stratmann, M, “The Delamination of Polymeric Coatings from Electrogalvanised Steel—A Mechanistic Approach. Part 3: Delamination Kinetics and Influence of CO2.” Corros. Sci., 43 243–254 (2001)
Fürbeth, W, Stratmann, M, “The Delamination of Polymeric Coatings from Electrogalvanised Steel—A Mechanistic Approach. Part 1: Delamination from a Defect with Intact Zinc Layer.” Corros. Sci., 43 207–227 (2001)
Fürbeth, W, Stratmann, M, “The Delamination of Polymeric Coatings from Electrogalvanized Steel—A Mechanistic Approach. Part 2: Delamination from a Defect Down to Steel.” Corros. Sci., 43 229–241 (2001)
Bacon, RC, Smith, JJ, Rugg, FM, “Electrolytic Resistance in Evaluating Protective Merit of Coatings on Metals.” Ind. Eng. Chem., 40 161–167 (1948)
Bierwagen, GP, He, L, Li, J, Ellingson, L, Tallman, DE, “Studies of a New Accelerated Evaluation Method for Coating Corrosion Resistance—Thermal Cycling Testing.” Prog. Org. Coat., 39 67–78 (2000)
Souto, RM, Fernández-Mérida, L, González, S, “SECM Imaging of Interfacial Processes in Defective Organic Coatings Applied on Metallic Substrates Using Oxygen as Redox Mediator.” Electroanalysis, 21 2640–2646 (2009)
Nazarov, A, Le Bozec, N, Thierry, D, Le Calvé, P, Pautasso, JP, “Scanning Kelvin Probe Investigation of Corrosion Under Thick Marine Paint Systems Applied on Carbon Steel.” Corrosion, 68 720–729 (2012). https://doi.org/10.5006/0551
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This paper was presented at the 15th Coatings Science International Conference on June 24–29, 2019, in Noordwijk, the Netherlands.
About this article
Cite this article
Upadhyay, V., Wiering, L., Bergseth, Z. et al. Corrosion beneath a blister with high impedance. J Coat Technol Res 17, 1105–1111 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-019-00280-9
- Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
- Scanning Kelvin probe
- Scanning electrochemical microscopy