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The influence of the structural features of lignin-based polyurethane coatings on ammonium sulfate release: kinetics and thermodynamics of the process

Abstract

The influence of the properties of lignin-based polyurethane (PU) coatings on the release behavior of ammonium sulfate was assessed through complete physicochemical, structural, and morphological characterization. The influence of the release medium was evaluated as well. The higher the amount of lignin in the coatings was, the lower the pore diameter and swelling degree and the higher crosslinking were. The hydrophobicity of coatings was not significantly changed by increasing the lignin content. However, the opposite behavior was observed for their biodegradability. The results of the nutrient release experiments showed that the two formulations of lignin-based PUs had very similar behavior in terms of release rates of NH4+ and SO42− in both release media, despite their different properties. However, there was a difference between their release rate constants obtained by using three different kinetic models. In addition, both PU coatings released a higher amount of SO42− than NH4+ in both media. The thermodynamic data suggest that dissolution and release processes for SO42− are more spontaneous than that for NH4+. Nevertheless, both coatings behaved in accordance with CEN standards for CRF systems, representing a potential technique for agricultural applications.

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Abbreviations

ATR:

Attenuated total reflectance

BET:

Brunauer–Emmett–Teller

CS:

Coconut shell

CSP:

Coconut shell powder

CSEL:

Coconut shell ethanosolv lignin

CEN:

Committee of European normalization

CRFs:

Controlled-release fertilizers

CD:

Crosslinking degree

FTIR:

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

GPC:

Gel permeation chromatography

IFA:

International Fertilizer Industry Association

NCO:

Isocyanate groups

NUE:

Nitrogen use efficiency

NPK:

Nitrogen–phosphorous–potassium

NRR:

Nutrient release rate

PU:

Polyurethane

PEG 400:

Polyethylene glycol 400

PCAS:

Polyurethane-coated ammonium sulfate

PRB:

Population reference bureau

SEM:

Scanning electron microscopy

SD:

Swelling degree

TDI:

Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate

WCA:

Water contact angle

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Acknowledgment

We gratefully acknowledge the Laboratório de Produtos e Tecnologia em Processos (LPT) for FTIR analyses, M.Sc. Laís Helena and Prof. Dr. Odair Pastor for BET analyses, M.Sc. Lyndervan Alcântara for WCA analyses, M.Sc. Nádia Oliveira for CHN analyses, Central Analítica-UFC/CT-INFRA/MCTI-SISNANO/Pró-Equipamentos, CNPq and CAPES for the financial support.

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Correspondence to Francisco Avelino.

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Avelino, F., Miranda, I.P., Moreira, T.D. et al. The influence of the structural features of lignin-based polyurethane coatings on ammonium sulfate release: kinetics and thermodynamics of the process. J Coat Technol Res 16, 449–463 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-018-0123-y

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Keywords

  • Coconut shell
  • Biodegradable materials
  • Fertilizer
  • Solvent-free polymerization
  • Unmodified lignin