Advertisement

Journal of Coatings Technology and Research

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 1259–1272 | Cite as

Impedance sensor for the early failure diagnosis of organic coatings

  • Guangyi Cai
  • Haowei Wang
  • Dan Jiang
  • Zehua DongEmail author
Article

Abstract

A miniature impedance sensor used for field diagnosis of the early failure of coatings has been developed based on microelectronics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The aging process of polyurethane-based coatings in salt spray test chamber was studied using the impedance sensor. Several critical indexes related to EIS such as phase angle (θ10Hz, θ15kHz), breakpoint frequency (fb), specific capacitance (C10Hz, C15kHz), and impedance modulus (Z0.1Hz) were proposed to evaluate the severity of coating degradation. The results indicated that the impedance sensor could accurately monitor the degradation process of coatings, and once Z0.1Hz < 106 Ω cm2, fb > 100 Hz, or θ10Hz < 20°, the coating may be regarded as completely degraded and fails to protect the metal substrate.

Keywords

Organic coatings Degradation Sensor EIS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Projects Nos. 51371087 and 50971064) and the Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Structural Corrosion Prevention and Control of China Special Vehicle Research Institute.

References

  1. 1.
    McIntyre, JM, Pham, HQ, “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy; A Tool for Organic Coatings Optimizations.” Prog. Org. Coat., 27 201–207 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bonora, PL, Deflorian, F, Fedrizzi, L, “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Tool for Investigating Underpaint Corrosion.” Electrochim. Acta., 41 1073–1082 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amirudin, A, Thieny, D, “Application of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Study the Degradation of Polymer-Coated Metals.” Prog. Org. Coat., 26 1–28 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Han, Y, Wang, J, Zhang, H, Zhao, S, Ma, Q, Wang, Z, “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS): An Efficiency Method to Monitor Resin Curing Processes.” Sens. Actuators A Phys., 250 78–86 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bakhshandeh, E, Jannesari, A, Ranjbar, Z, Sobhani, S, Saeb, MR, “Anti-Corrosion Hybrid Coatings Based on Epoxy–Silica Nano-composites: Toward Relationship Between the Morphology and EIS Data.” Prog. Org. Coat., 77 1169–1183 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jianguo, L, Gaoping, G, Chuanwei, Y, “EIS Study of Corrosion Behaviour of Organic Coating/Dacromet Composite Systems.” Electrochim. Acta, 50 3320–3332 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vogelsang, J, Strunz, W, “New Interpretation of Electrochemical Data Obtained from Organic Barrier Coatings.” Electrochim. Acta, 46 3817–3826 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bierwagen, G, Tallman, D, Li, J, He, L, Jeffcoate, C, “EIS Studies of Coated Metals in Accelerated Exposure.” Prog. Org. Coat., 46 149–158 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grundmeier, G, Schmidt, W, Stratmann, M, “Corrosion Protection by Organic Coatings: Electrochemical Mechanism and Novel Methods of Investigation.” Electrochim. Acta, 45 2515–2533 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    González-García, Y, González, S, Souto, RM, “Electrochemical and Structural Properties of a Polyurethane Coating on Steel Substrates for Corrosion Protection.” Corros. Sci., 49 3514–3526 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mouanga, M, Puiggali, M, Devos, O, “EIS and LEIS Investigation of Aging Low Carbon Steel with Zn–Ni Coating.” Electrochim. Acta, 106 82–90 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parfenov, EV, Yerokhin, AL, Matthews, A, “Impedance Spectroscopy Characterisation of PEO Process and Coatings on Aluminium.” Thin Solid Films, 516 428–432 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wan, Q, Ding, H, Yousaf, MI, Chen, YM, Liu, HD, Hu, L, Yang, B, “Corrosion Behaviors of TiN and Ti–Si–N (with 2.9 at.% and 5.0 at.% Si) Coatings by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.” Thin Solid Films, 616 601–607 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bastos, AC, Ferreira, MGS, Simões, AMP, “The Uneven Corrosion of Deep Drawn Coil-Coatings Investigated by EIS.” Electrochim. Acta, 56 7825–7832 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hinderliter, BR, Croll, SG, Tallman, DE, Su, Q, Bierwagen, GP, “Interpretation of EIS Data from Accelerated Exposure of Coated Metals Based on Modeling of Coating Physical Properties.” Electrochim. Acta, 51 4505–4515 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akbarinezhad, E, Rezaei, F, Neshati, J, “Evaluation of a High Resistance Paint Coating with EIS Measurements: Effect of High AC Perturbations.” Prog. Org. Coat., 61 45–52 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oliveira, CG, Ferreira, MGS, “Ranking High-Quality Paint Systems Using EIS. Part I: Intact Coatings.” Corros. Sci., 45 123–138 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oliveira, CG, Ferreira, MGS, “Ranking High-Quality Paint Systems Using EIS. Part II: Defective Coatings.” Corros. Sci., 45 139–147 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Simpson, TC, Moran, PJ, Moshier, WC, Davis, GD, Shaw, BA, Arah, CO, Zankel, KL, “Electrochemical Monitor for the Detection of Coating Degradation in Atmosphere.” J. Electrochem. Soc., 136 2761–2762 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Amirudin, A, Barreau, C, Hellouin, R, Thierry, D, “Evaluation of Anti-corrosive Pigments by Pigment Extract Studies, Atmospheric Exposure and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.” Prog. Org. Coat., 25 339–355 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haruyama, S, Sudo, S, “Electrochemical Impedance for a Large Structure in Soil.” Electrochim. Acta, 38 1857–1865 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Touzain, S, “Some Comments on the Use of the EIS Phase Angle to Evaluate Organic Coating Degradation.” Electrochim. Acta, 55 6190–6194 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mansfeld, F, Tsai, CH, “Determination of Coating Deterioration with EIS: I. Basic Relationships.” Corrosion, 47 958–963 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sekine, I, “Recent Evaluation of Corrosion Protective Paint Films by Electrochemical Methods.” Prog. Org. Coat., 31 73–80 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sekine, I, Sakaguchi, K, Yuasa, M, “Estimation and Prediction of Degradation of Coating Films by Frequency at Maximum Phase Angle.” J. Coat. Technol., 64 45–49 (1992)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zuo, Y, Pang, R, Li, W, Xiong, JP, Tang, YM, “The Evaluation of Coating Performance by the Variations of Phase Angles in Middle and High Frequency Domains of EIS.” Corros. Sci., 50 3322–3328 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mahdavian, M, Attar, MM, “Another Approach in Analysis of Paint Coatings with EIS Measurement: Phase Angle at High Frequencies.” Corros. Sci., 48 4152–4157 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thu, QL, Bierwagen, GP, Touzain, S, “EIS and ENM Measurements for Three Different Organic Coatings on Aluminum.” Prog. Org. Coat., 42 179–187 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Touzain, S, Thu, QL, Bonnet, G, “Evaluation of Thick Organic Coatings Degradation in Seawater Using Cathodic Protection and Thermally Accelerated Tests.” Prog. Org. Coat., 52 311–319 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jiang, M-Y, Wu, L-K, Hu, J-M, Zhang, J-Q, “Silane-Incorporated Epoxy Coatings on Aluminum Alloy (AA2024). Part 1: Improved Corrosion Performance.” Corros. Sci., 92 118–126 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davis, GD, Dacres, CM, “Portable, Hand-Held, In Situ Electrochemical Sensor for Evaluating Corrosion and Adhesion on Coated or Uncoated Metal Structures.” US Patent, 2000Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thomas, KA, Nair, S, Ramesh Kumar, AV, Natarajan, V, John, R, “Application of Fringe Field Capacitance Sensor for the Study of Water Permeation in Organic Coatings.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 13 829–835 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang, D, Battocchi, D, Allahar, KN, Balbyshev, S, Bierwagen, GP, “In Situ Monitoring of a Mg-rich Primer Beneath a Topcoat Exposed to Prohesion Conditions.” Corros. Sci., 52 441–448 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mahdavi, F, Tan, MYJ, Forsyth, M, “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Tool To Measure Cathodic Disbondment on Coated Steel Surfaces: Capabilities and Limitations.” Prog. Org. Coat., 88 23–31 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bi, H, Sykes, J, “An Investigation of Cathodic Oxygen Reduction Beneath an Intact Organic Coating on Mild Steel and its Relevance to Cathodic Disbonding.” Prog. Org. Coat., 87 83–87 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yuan, X, Yue, ZF, Liu, ZQ, Wen, SF, Li, L, Feng, T, “Comparison of the Failure Mechanisms of Silicone-Epoxy Hybrid Coatings on Type A3 Mild Steel and 2024 Al-Alloy.” Prog. Org. Coat., 90 101–113 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Deflorian, F, Fedrizzi, L, Rossi, S, Bonora, PL, “Organic Coating Capacitance Measurement by EIS: Ideal and Actual Trends.” Electrochim. Acta, 44 4243–4249 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yuan, X, Yue, ZF, Chen, X, Wen, SF, Li, L, Feng, T, “EIS Study of Effective Capacitance and Water Uptake Behaviors of Silicone-Epoxy Hybrid Coatings on Mild Steel.” Prog. Org. Coat., 86 41–48 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hu, JM, Zhang, JQ, Cao, CN, “Determination of Water Uptake and Diffusion of Cl Ion in Epoxy Primer on Aluminum Alloys in NaCl Solution by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.” Prog. Org. Coat., 46 273–279 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang, D, Bierwagen, GP, “Sol–Gel Coatings on Metals for Corrosion Protection.” Prog. Org. Coat., 64 327–338 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang, J-T, Hu, J-M, Zhang, J-Q, Cao, C-N, “Studies of Water Transport Behavior and Impedance Models of Epoxy-Coated Metals in NaCl Solution by EIS.” Prog. Org. Coat., 51 145–151 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu, X, Xiong, J, Lv, Y, Zuo, Y, “Study on Corrosion Electrochemical Behavior of Several Different Coating Systems by EIS.” Prog. Org. Coat., 64 497–503 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nogueira, A, Nóvoa, XR, Pérez, C, “On the Possibility of Using Embedded Electrodes for the Measurement of Dielectric Properties in Organic Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 59 186–191 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mills, DJ, Broster, M, Razaq, I, “Continuing Work to Enable Electrochemical Methods to be Used to Monitor the Performance of Organic Coatings in the Field.” Prog. Org. Coat., 63 267–271 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Skale, S, Doleček, V, Slemnik, M, “Electrochemical Impedance Studies of Corrosion Protected Surfaces Covered by Epoxy Polyamide Coating Systems.” Prog. Org. Coat., 62 387–392 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Haruyama, S, Asari, M, Tsuru, T. In: Kendig, MW, Leidheiser H (eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium Corrosion Protection by Organic Coatings, pp. 197–209. The Electrochemical Society, USA (1987)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mansfeld, F, “Discussion: Determination of the Reactive Area of Organic Coated Metals Using the Breakpoint Method.” Corrosion, 50 741–743 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mansfeld, F, Tsai, CH, “Discussion on the Relationship of Break-Point Frequencies to Delamination.” Corrosion, 47 964–965 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hubei Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry and Service Failure, School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.China Special Vehicle Research InstituteAviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Structural Corrosion Prevention and ControlJingmenChina

Personalised recommendations