High-performance one-pack ambient cross-linking latex binders containing low-generation PAMAM dendrimers and ZnO nanoparticles

  • Jana Machotova
  • Adela Ruckerova
  • Peter Bohacik
  • Katerina Pukova
  • Andrea Kalendova
  • Jiri Palarcik
Article
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

This study focuses on ambient-temperature self-crosslinking acrylic latex coating compositions containing poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers and ZnO nanoparticles in the role of inter-particle cross-linking agents and flash rust inhibitors. Low-generation amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers as aqueous solutions were added into latices containing diacetone acrylamide repeat units in their polymer structure. The incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles (without any surface treatment) was performed during the synthesis of a polymer dispersion carried out by the semi-continuous emulsion polymerization technique. The latex storage stability and coating performance with respect to zinc oxide and PAMAM presence were evaluated and compared with a conventional zinc oxide-free coating composition containing adipic acid dihydrazide as the cross-linking agent. It was found that the novel latices containing both PAMAM dendrimers and ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a long-term storage stability and provided crosslinked transparent coating films of high gloss, enhanced mechanical properties, solvent resistance and excellent water whitening resistance. Moreover, the latex compositions containing PAMAM dendrimers as the inter-particle cross-linkers were shown to provide flash rust resistance.

Keywords

Self-crosslinking latex PAMAM dendrimer Water whitening Flash rust Zinc oxide Nanoparticle 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (Grants LM2015082 and ED4.100/11.0251).

References

  1. 1.
    Nakayama, Y, “Development of Novel Aqueous Coatings Which Meet the Requirements of Ecology-Conscious Society: Novel Cross-linking System Based on the Carbonyl-Hydrazide Reaction and its Applications.” Prog. Org. Coat., 51 280–299 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guo, TY, Liu, JCh, Song, MD, Zhang, BH, “Effects of Carboxyl Group on the Ambient Self-Crosslinkable Polyacrylate Latices.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 104 3948–3953 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holub, P, “One-Component Systems Yield Good Properties.” Eur. Coat. J., 10 21–28 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lai, X, Shen, Y, Wang, L, “Preparation and Properties of Self-Crosslinkable Polyurethane/Silane Hybrid Emulsion.” J. Polym. Res., 18 2425–2433 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang, JD, Yang, MJ, Zhu, YR, Yang, H, “Synthesis and Characterization of Crosslinkable Latex with Interpenetrating Network Structure Based on Polystyrene and Polyacrylate.” Polym. Int., 55 951–960 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koukiotis, Ch, Sideridou, ID, “Synthesis and Characterization of Latexes Based on Copolymers BA/MMA/DAAM and BA/MMA/VEOVA-10/DAAM and the Corresponding 1 K Crosslinkable Binder Using the Adipic Acid Dihydrazide as Crosslinking Agent.” Prog. Org. Coat., 69 504–509 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koukiotis, ChG, Karabela, MM, Sideridou, ID, “Mechanical Properties of Films of Latexes Based on Copolymers BA/MMA/DAAM and BA/MMA/VEOVA-10/DAAM and the Corresponding Self-crosslinked Copolymers Using the Adipic Acid Dihydrazide as Crosslinking Agent.” Prog. Org. Coat., 75 106–115 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, M, Lin, X, Li, X, Wang, H, “Preparation and Property Study of Core-Shell Ambient-Temperature Crosslinkable Polyacrylate Binder.” Appl. Mech. Mat., 469 3–6 (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang, X, Liu, Y, Huang, H, Li, Y, Chen, H, “The Diacetone Acrylamide Crosslinking Reaction and its Control of Core-shell Polyacrylate Latices at Ambient Temperature.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 123 1822–1832 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li, H, Kan, C, Du, Y, Liu, D, “Effects of the Amount of Diacetone Acrylamide on the Properties of Styrene-Acrylic Copolymer Latexes and their Films.” Polym. Prep., 43 413–414 (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scholten, HP, Slinck, MM, “Interpolymer Latexes from Esters of (Meth)acrylic Acid and Vinyl Esters of Branched Chain Carboxylic Acids,” EP Patent 486,110 A1, 1992Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xu, J, Zhang, T, Liu, H, “Copolymer Dispersion for Water Whitening Resistant Coatings.” US Patent 8,772,386 B2 2014Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tomalia, DA, Baker, H, Dewald, J, Hall, M, Kallos, G, Martin, S, Roeck, J, Ryder, J, Smith, P, “A New Class of Polymers: Starburst-Dendritic Macromolecules.” Polym. J., 17 117–132 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tomalia, DA, “Birth of a New Macromolecular Architecture: Dendrimers as Quantized Building Blocks for Nanoscale Synthetic Polymer Chemistry.” Prog. Polym. Sci., 30 294–324 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bosman, AW, Janssen, HM, Meijer, EW, “About Dendrimers: Structure, Physical Properties, and Applications.” Chem. Rev., 99 1665–1688 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang, H, Morris, JJ, Lopina, ST, “Polyethylene Glycol-Polyamidoamine Dendritic Micelle as Solubility Enhancer and the Effect of the Length of Polyethylene Glycol Arms on the Solubility of Pyrene in Water.” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 273 148–154 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Torigoe, K, Suzuki, A, Esumi, K, “Au(III)–PAMAM Interaction and Formation of Au–PAMAM Nanocomposites in Ethyl Acetate.” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 241 346–356 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu, M, Konol, K, Fréchet, JM, “Water-Soluble Dendritic Unimolecular Micelles: Their Potential as Drug Delivery Agents.” J. Control. Rel., 65 121–131 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Endo, T, Yoshimura, T, Esumi, K, “Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold-Silver Binary Nanoparticles Stabilized by PAMAM Dendrimer.” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 286 602–609 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Milhem, OM, Myles, C, McKeown, NB, Attwood, D, D’Emanuele, A, “Polyamidoamine Starburst® Dendrimers as Solubility Enhancers.” Int. J. Pharm., 197 239–241 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roberts, JC, Bhalgat, MK, Zera, RT, “Preliminary Biological Evaluation of Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) Starburst Dendrimers.” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 30 53–65 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kesharwani, P, Jain, K, Jain, NK, “Dendrimer as Nanocarrier for Drug Delivery.” Prog. Polym. Sci., 39 268–307 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reinhard, G, Simon, P, Rammelt, U, “Application of Corrosion Inhibitors in Water-Borne Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 20 383–392 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    del Amo, B, Romagnoli, R, Deyá, C, González, JA, “High Performance Water-Based Paints with Non-Toxic Anticorrosive Pigments.” Prog. Org. Coat., 45 389–397 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reinhard, G, “Formulation of Water-Borne Dispersions for Corrosion-Protective Primers.” Prog. Org. Coat., 18 123–145 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yeon, SJ, Mijeong, H, “Multi-Functional Hybrid Coatings Containing Silica Nanoparticles and Anti-Corrosive Acrylate Monomer for Scratch and Corrosion Resistance.” Nanotechnology, 22 025601 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Montemor, MF, Ferreira, MGS, “Analytical Characterization of Silane Films Modified with Cerium Activated Nanoparticles and its Relation with the Corrosion Protection of Galvanised Steel Substrates.” Prog. Org. Coat., 63 330–337 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    El Saeed, AM, El-Fattah, MA, Azzam, AM, “Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles and Studying its Influence on the Antimicrobial, Anticorrosion and Mechanical Behavior of Polyurethane Composite for Surface Coating.” Dyes Pigments, 121 282–289 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chimenti, S, Vega, JM, Aguirre, M, García-Lecina, E, Díez, JA, Grande, HJ, Paulis, M, Leiza, JR, “Effective Incorporation of ZnO Nanoparticles by Miniemulsion Polymerization in Waterborne Binders for Steel Corrosion Protection.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 14 829–839 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fox, TG, Flory, PJ, “2nd-Order Transition Temperatures and Related Properties of Polystyrene. 1. Influence of Molecular Weight.” J. Appl. Phys., 21 581–591 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reichle, RA, McCurdy, KG, Hepler, LG, “Zinc Hydroxide: Solubility Product and Hydroxy-Complex Stability Constants from 12.5-75°C.” Can. J. Chem., 53 3481–3485 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Plessis, Ch, Arzamendi, G, Leiza, JR, Schoonbrood, HA, Asua, JM, “Seeded Semibatch Emulsion Polymerization of Poly(n-Butyl Acrylate). Kinetics and Structural Properties.” Macromolecules, 33 5041–5047 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gee, S, “Water-Borne Coatings for Steel.” Surface Coat. Int., 7 316–320 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kessel, N, Illsley, DR, Keddie, JL, “The Diacetone Acrylamide Crosslinking Reaction and Its Influence on the Film Formation of an Acrylic Latex.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 5 285–297 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jiang, B, Tsavalas, JG, Sundberg, DC, “Water Whitening of Polymer Films: Mechanistic Studies and Comparison Between Water and Solvent Borne Films.” Prog. Org. Coat., 105 56–66 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kalendova, A, “Methods for Testing and Evaluating the Flash Corrosion.” Prog. Org. Coat., 44 201–209 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jana Machotova
    • 1
  • Adela Ruckerova
    • 1
  • Peter Bohacik
    • 1
  • Katerina Pukova
    • 2
  • Andrea Kalendova
    • 1
  • Jiri Palarcik
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Macromolecular Materials, Faculty of Chemical TechnologyUniversity of PardubicePardubiceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical TechnologyUniversity of PardubicePardubiceCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations