Advertisement

Journal of Coatings Technology and Research

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 993–1002 | Cite as

Structure and surface properties of a novel bulk-matte waterborne polyurethane coating composite

  • Qiwen Yong
  • Bing Liao
  • Guo Ying
  • Liang Caizhen
  • Hao Huang
  • Hao Pang
Article
  • 219 Downloads

Abstract

This paper reports on a novel self-matte or bulk-matte waterborne polyurethane coating composite with inherently extremely low gloss. The coating composite was comprised of a siloxane-containing waterborne polyurethane (SPU) resin and a crosslinked waterborne polyurethane (CPU) resin. The CPU resin was mainly responsible for fabricating the micro-rough surface of the film, which was achieved by a crosslinking reaction between the waterborne polyurethane and bisphenol A-type epoxy E-44 resin. The SPU resin was used to improve the comprehensive properties of the film, which was ascribed to the addition of silane coupling agent KH792. Compared with traditional matte coatings, this coating composite made it possible to avoid high loadings of matting agent and to arrive at highly flexible low-gloss finishes. Gloss levels of as low as a few tenths of a percent, even at high incidence angles, have been achieved with zero loading of extraneous dulling agent. The chemical structures of the SPU and CPU resins were characterized by FTIR-ATR and NMR spectra. The micro-rough topographies and surface rough degrees of the SPU, CPU and their 50%/50% composite films were measured by SEM and MSP, respectively. The particle sizes and particle morphologies of the SPU and CPU resins were imaged by TEM. Finally, the comprehensive properties of the SPU, CPU and their 50%/50% composite resins were evaluated, including the water contact angle, film transparency, tensile strength and storage stability.

Keywords

Crosslinked waterborne polyurethane Epoxy resin Silane coupling agent Bulk-matte Low gloss Composite film 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015A010105001).

Compliance with ethical standard

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

References

  1. 1.
    He, Yong, Xie, Delong, Zhang, Xinya, “The Structure, Microphase-Separated Morphology, and Property of Polyurethanes and Polyureas.” J. Mater. Sci., 49 (21) 7339–7352 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Polus, I, “Synthesis of Polyurethane Coating Components with IPDI and TMDI.” Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 61 (3) 238–240 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Princi, Elisabetta, et al., “On the Micro-Phase Separation in Waterborne Polyurethanes.” Macromol. Chem. Phys., 210 (10) 879–889 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhou, Xing, et al., “Recent Advances in Synthesis of Waterborne Polyurethane and Their Application in Water-Based Ink: A Review.” J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 31 (7) 708–722 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2015.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Basu, Soumendra K, Scriven, LEE, Francis, LFF, McCormick, AVV, “Mechanism of Wrinkle Formation in Curing Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 53(1): 1–16 (2005) http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0300944004002103
  6. 6.
    Kitaike, Y, Hatakeyama, H, Tayama, S, Nakagawa, K, “Mat Thermoplastic Resin Composition and Laminate Therefrom, Matting Agent Therefore, and Method for Matting Thermoplastic Resin.”(1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hong, J K, et al. “Low Gloss Thermoplastic Resin Composition with Soft Touch Surface and Molded Article Therefrom.” (2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shimamoto, Y, Nishimura, J, Shimamoto, N2007Acrylic Matt Thermoplastic Resin Films and Process for Producing the Same.pdf. US (2007).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vessot, K, Messier, P, Hyde, J M, Brown, C A, “Correlation between Gloss Reflectance and Surface Texture in Photographic Paper.” Scanning, 37(3): 204–17 (2015) http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/sca.21201.
  10. 10.
    Villalobos, R, et al., “Gloss and Transparency of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Films Containing Surfactants as Affected by Their Microstructure.” Food Hydrocoll., 19(1): 53–61 (2005) http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0268005X04000529.
  11. 11.
    Trezza, T A, Krochta, J M, “Specular Reflection, Gloss, Roughness and Surface Heterogeneity of Biopolymer Coatings.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 79(12): 2221–29 (2001) http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/1097-4628%2820010321%2979%3A12%3C2221%3A%3AAID-APP1029%3E3.0.CO%3B2-F.
  12. 12.
    Chadwick, A C, Kentridge, R W, “The Perception of Gloss: A Review.” Vis. Res., 109(PB) 221–35 (2015)  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2014.10.026.
  13. 13.
    Juuti, M, et al., “Detection of Local Specular Gloss and Surface Roughness from Black Prints.” Coll. Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Asp., 299(1–3): 101–8 (2007) http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0927775706008739.
  14. 14.
    Cawthorne, James Edwin, Joyce, Margaret, Fleming, Dan, “Use of a Chemically Modified Clay as a Replacement for Silica in Matte Coated Ink-Jet Papers.” J. Coat. Technol., 75 (2) 75–81 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dullaert, Konraad, Steeman, Paul, Bolks, Jurjen, “A Mechanistic Study of the Effect of Pigment Loading on the Appearance of Powder Coatings: the Effect of Surface Topography on the Optical Properties of Powder Coatings: Modelling and Experimental Results.” Prog. Org. Coat., 70 (4) 205–212 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2010.07.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee, Sang Sun, et al., “Gloss Reduction in Low Temperature Curable Hybrid Powder Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 46 (4) 266–272 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ou, Juhua, et al., “Matting Films Prepared from Waterborne Acrylic/micro-SiO2 Blends.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 132 (13) 1–8 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Colombo, A et al. “Highly Transparent poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline)-TiO 2 Nanocomposite Coatings for the Conservation of Matte Painted Artworks.” RSC Adv., 5(103): 84879–88 (2015) http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C5RA10895K.
  19. 19.
    Giles, S L, et al., “Novel Methods of Producing Low-Reflectance Coatings Utilizing Synergistic Effects of Polymer Phase Separation.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 8(39): 26251–57 (2016) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsami.6b06037.
  20. 20.
    Thometzek, P, Freudenberg, U, Meier-Westhues, U, Yonek, K, “Weather-Stable Low-Gloss Powder Coatings.” J. Coat. Technol., 72(7): 75–79 (2000) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02698473%5Cnhttp://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF02698473.
  21. 21.
    Xue, L, Zhang, J, Han, Y, “Phase Separation Induced Ordered Patterns in Thin Polymer Blend Films.” Prog. Polym. Sci., 37(4): 564–94 (2012) http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0079670011001067.
  22. 22.
    Bauer, F, et al., “UV Curing and Matting of Acrylate Nanocomposite Coatings by 172 nm Excimer Irradiation.” Prog. Org. Coat., 64(4): 474–81 (2009) http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0300944008001999.
  23. 23.
    Cao, Xianli, Ge, Xia, Chen, Huanhuan, Li, Wenbo, “Effects of Trimethylol Propane and AAS Salt on Properties of Waterborne Polyurethane with Low Gloss.” Prog. Org. Coat., 107 5–13 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2017.02.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yong, Q, et al., “Synthesis and Surface Analysis of Self-Matt Coating Based on Waterborne Polyurethane Resin and Study on the Matt Mechanism.” Polym. Bull., 74(4): 1061–76 (2017) http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00289-016-1763-7.
  25. 25.
    Rahman, MM, et al. “Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane Coatings: The Effect of Different Types of Soft Segments and Their Ratios.” Composite Interfaces, 20(1): 15–26 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15685543.2013.762890%5Cnhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15685543.2013.762890.
  26. 26.
    Zhai, L, et al., “Synthesis and Characterization of Nanosilica/waterborne Polyurethane End-Capped by Alkoxysilane via a Sol-Gel Process.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 128(3): 1715–24 (2013) http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/app.38225.
  27. 27.
    Fletcher, TE, “A Simple Model to Describe Relationships between Gloss Behaviour, Matting Agent Concentration and the Rheology of Matted Paints and Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 44 (1) 25–36 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bernotti, Lorenzo, Fletcher, Tim, Ferner, Uwe, “Making Matte Finishes to Meet New Challenges.” Eur. Coat. J., 11 30–32 (2011)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Faucheu, J, Wood, K A, Sung, L P, Martin, J W, “Relating Gloss Loss to Topographical Features of a PVDF Coating.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 3(1): 29–39 (2006) http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-32544445970&partnerID=tZOtx3y1.
  30. 30.
    Järnström, J, Ihalainen, P, Backfolk, K, Peltonen, J, “Roughness of Pigment Coatings and Its Influence on Gloss.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 254 (18) 5741–5749 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Alexander-Katz, R, Barrera, R G, “Surface Correlation Effects on Gloss.” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 36(8) 1321–34 (1998) http://www.fisica.unam.mx/personales/rbarrera/pdf/pub/int/57-JPolymerS-B-36-1321-98.pdf%5Cnhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0488(199806)36:8%3C1321::AID-POLB7%3E3.0.CO;2-U
  32. 32.
    Gunde, M K, Kunaver, M, Čekada, M, “Surface Analysis of Matt Powder Coatings.” Dyes Pigments, 74(1): 202–7 (2006) http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0143720806000684.
  33. 33.
    Maia, R, D’Alba, L, Shawkey, M D, “What Makes a Feather Shine? A Nanostructural Basis for Glossy Black Colours in Feathers.” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 278(1714): 1973–80 (2011) http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/doi/10.1098/rspb.2010.1637.
  34. 34.
    Blumenthal, James, Barefoot, John, Haney, Tom, “Communication to the Editor.” J. Psychosom. Res., 30 (3) 387 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wenzel, R N, “Resistance of Solid Surfaces to Wetting by Water.” Ind. Eng. Chem., 28(8): 988–94 (1936) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ie50320a024.

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiwen Yong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bing Liao
    • 3
  • Guo Ying
    • 1
    • 2
  • Liang Caizhen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hao Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hao Pang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Cellulose and Lignocellulosics ChemistryGuangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Guangdong Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations