Skip to main content

Investigation of cardanol-based reactive polyamide as a crosslinker in epoxy zinc-rich primer


Cardanol-based reactive polyamides with different amine functionalities were successfully developed by conventional polycondensation mechanism. The synthesis involved 2-step processes of functionalization of cardanol by maleic anhydride followed by its condensation with diethylenetriamine in the second step. The polyamides with different molecular weights were prepared by varying the mole ratios of acid and amine components in the formulation. The developed polyamides were characterized for structural confirmation by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. These polyamides were then used as crosslinker in conventional epoxy zinc-rich primer. The effect of molecular weights of these polyamides on mechanical, chemical, and solvent resistance properties of conventional epoxy zinc-rich primer was studied and compared with that of commercial polyamide. The anticorrosive properties of the primers were evaluated by humidity resistance test, salt spray test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The study revealed that the epoxy zinc-rich primers cured with cardanol-based polyamide resulted in improved mechanical, chemical, and anticorrosive properties as evaluated by various methods.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. Fontana, MG, Corrosion Engineering, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapore (1987)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Meroufel, A, Touzain, S, “EIS Characterisation of New Zinc-Rich Powder Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 59 197–205 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Forsgren, A, “Corrosion Control Through Organic Coatings,” CRC Press, ISBN: 9780849372780, 2006

  4. Wicks, ZW, Jones, FN, Pappas, SP, Wicks, DA, Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, 3rd ed. Wiley-Interscience, New York (2007)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  5. Marchebois, H, Joiret, S, Savall, C, Bernard, J, Touzain, S, “Characterization of Zinc-Rich Powder Coatings by EIS and Raman Spectroscopy.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 157 151–161 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Kalendova, A, Kalenda, P, Vesely, D, “Comparison of the Efficiency of Inorganic Nonmetal Pigments with Zinc Powder in Anticorrosion Paints.” Prog. Org. Coat., 57 (1) 1–10 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Nanna, ME, Bierwagen, GP, “Mg-Rich Coating: A New Paradigm for Cr Free Corrosion Protection of Al Aerospace Alloys.” JCT Res., 1 (2) 69–80 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Mohanty, AK, Misra, M, Hinrichsen, G, “Biofibres, Biodegradable Polymers and Biocomposites: An Overview.” Macromol. Mater. Eng., 276 (1) 1–24 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Zhen, MI, Xiao-an, NIE, Wang, Y, Changa, X, Lin, G, “Biological Studies on the Wild Silkworm, Epiphora bauhiniae (Guerin-Meneville): (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Gedarif State; Sudan.” J. Forest Prod. Ind., 2 (2) 5–11 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Huang, K, Jianling, X, Xiaohua, Y, Li, M, Ding, H, “Properties and Curing Kinetics of C21-Based Reactive Polyamides as Epoxy-Curing Agents Derived from Tung Oil.” Polym. J., 42 51–57 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Thiem, J, Bachmann, F, “Synthesis and Properties of Polyamides Derived from Anhydro- and Dianhydroalditols.” Makromol. Chem., 192 (9) 2163–2182 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Balgude, D, Sabnis, A, “CNSL: An Environment Friendly Alternative for the Modern Coating Industry.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 11 (2) 169–183 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kathalewar, M, Sabnis, A, “Epoxy Resin from Cardanol as Partial Replacement of Bisphenol-A-Based Epoxy for Coating Application.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 11 (4) 601–618 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Yasaharu, N, “Maleinization Process” US Patent 3,778,418, 1973

  15. ASTM D-1544, 2004, Standard Test Method for Color of Transparent Liquids (Gardner Color Scale), USA

  16. ASTM D-1259, 1985 (reapproved 2001), Standard Test Methods for Non-Volatile Content of Resin Solutions, USA

  17. ASTM D-2196, 1999, Standard Test Methods for Rheological Properties of Non-Newtonian Materials by Rotational (Brookfield type) Viscometer, USA

  18. ASTM D-1475, 1998 (reapproved 2003), Standard Test Method for Density of Liquid Coatings, Inks, and Related Products, USA

  19. ASTM D-1959, 1997, Standard Test Method for Iodine Value of Drying Oils and Fatty Acids, USA

  20. ASTM D-1980, 1987 (reapproved 1998), Standard Test Method for Acid Value of Fatty Acids and Polymerized Fatty Acids, USA

  21. ASTM D-2074, 1992 (reapproved 1998), Standard Test Methods for Total, Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Amine Values of Fatty Amines by Alternative Indicator Method, USA

  22. IS: 101 (Part 6/Sec-1), 1988, Resistance to Humidity Under Conditions of Condensation, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi

  23. Pavia, DL, Lampman, GM, Kriz, GS, Vyvyan, JR, Introduction to Spectroscopy, 4th ed. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning Inc., Belmont (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Silverstein, RM, Webster, FX, Kiemle, DJ, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, pp. 127–227. Wiley, Hoboken (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Shenoy, MA, D’Melo, DJ, “Effect of Cross-Linking Density on Coating Properties of a Polyurea Coating System.” Surf. Coat. Intern. Part B: Coat. Trans., 89 (B3) 221–230 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Meroufel, A, Touzain, S, “EIS Characterisation of New Zinc-Rich Powder Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 59 (3) 197–205 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Buchrsky, EC, Real, SG, Vilche, JR, “Evaluation of Zinc-Rich Paint Coating Performance by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.” J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 6 (1) 39–42 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Abreu, CM, Izquierdo, M, Keddam, M, Novoa, XR, Takenouti, H, “Electrochemical Behaviour of Zinc-Rich Epoxy Paints in 3% NaCl Solution.” Electrochim. Acta., 41 (15) 2405–2415 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Marchebois, H, Keddam, M, Savall, C, Bernard, J, Touzain, S, “Zinc-Rich Powder Coatings Characterisation in Artificial Sea Water: EIS Analysis of the Galvanic Action.” Electrochim. Acta., 49 (11) 1719–1729 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Qian, Y, Li, Y, Jungwirth, S, Seely, N, Fang, Y, Shi, X, “The Application of Anti-Corrosion Coating for Preserving the Value of Equipment Asset in Chloride-Laden Environments: A Review.” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 10 10756–10780 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  31. Ghosh, SK, Waghoo, G, Kalita, A, Balgude, D, Kumar, KR, “Chloride-Free Biodegradable Organic Acid Hydrolyzed Zinc Silicate Coating.” Prog. Org. Coat., 73 70–75 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. ASTM D-610, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces, USA (2001)

Download references


The authors gratefully acknowledge Cardolite Specialty Chemicals India Pvt. Ltd. and Shalimar Paints Ltd, Nashik, for their kind support for raw materials supply and testing facilities, respectively.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anagha Sabnis.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Balgude, D., Sabnis, A. & Ghosh, S.K. Investigation of cardanol-based reactive polyamide as a crosslinker in epoxy zinc-rich primer. J Coat Technol Res 14, 583–595 (2017).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Cardanol
  • Reactive polyamide
  • Epoxy zinc-rich primer
  • Salts spray
  • EIS
  • Humidity resistance