Thin film optics, based on light interference characteristics, are attracting increasing interest because of their ability to enable a functional color coating for various applications in optical, electronic, and solar industries. Here, we report on the dependence of coloring characteristics on single-layer TiO2 thicknesses and alternating TiO2/Al2O3 multilayer structures prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at a low growth temperature. The ALD TiO2 and Al2O3 thin films were studied at a low growth temperature of 80°C. Then, the coloring features in the single-layer TiO2 and alternating TiO2/Al2O3 multilayers using both the ALD processes were experimentally examined on a TiN/cut stainless steel sheet. The Essential Macleod software was used to estimate and compare the color coating results. The simulation results revealed that five different colors of the single TiO2 layers were shown experimentally, depending on the film thickness. For the purpose of highly uniform pink color coating, the film structures of TiO2/Al2O3 multilayers were designed in advance. It was experimentally demonstrated that the evaluated colors corresponded well with the simulated color spectrum results, exhibiting a uniform pink color with wide incident angles ranging from 0° to 75°. This article advances practical applications requiring highly uniform color coatings of surfaces in a variety of optical coating areas with complex topographical structures.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
van Nijnatten, PA, “Optical Monitoring Tools and Strategies for Controlling Coating Deposition in Large Area Continuous Coating Processes.” Thin Solid Films, 502 (1–2) 147–152 (2006)
Jeong, S-H, Kim, J-K, Kim, B-S, Shim, S-H, Lee, B-T, “Characterization of SiO2 and TiO2 Films Prepared Using rf Magnetron Sputtering and Their Application to Antireflection Coating.” Vacuum, 76 (4) 507–515 (2004)
Selj, JH, Mongstad, TT, Søndenå, R, Marstein, ES, “Reduction of Optical Losses in Colored Solar Cells With Multilayer Antireflection Coatings.” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 95 (9) 2576–2582 (2011)
Ni, J, Zhao, Q, Zhao, X, “Transparent and High Infrared Reflection Film Having Sandwich Structure of SiO2/Al:ZnO/SiO2.” Prog. Org. Coat., 64 (2–3) 317–321 (2009)
Bauer, S, Klippe, L, Rothhaar, U, Kuhr, M, “Optical Multilayers for Ultra-Narrow Bandpass Filters Fabricated by PICVD.” Thin Solid Films, 442 (1–2) 189–193 (2003)
Dannenberg, R, Greene, P, “Reactive Sputter Deposition of Titanium Dioxide.” Thin Solid Films, 360 (1–2) 122–127 (2000)
Won, D-J, Wang, C-H, Jang, H-K, Choi, D-J, “Effects of Thermally Induced Anatase-To-Rutile Phase Transition in MOCVD-Grown TiO2 Films on Structural and Optical Properties.” Appl. Phys. A, 73 (5) 595–600 (2001)
Aarik, J, Aidla, A, Mändar, H, Uustare, T, Schuisky, M, Hårsta, A, “Atomic Layer Growth of Epitaxial TiO2 Thin Films From TiCl4 and H2O on α-Al2O3 Substrates.” J. Cryst. Growth, 242 (1–2) 189–198 (2002)
Mitchell, DRG, Attard, DJ, Finnie, KS, Triani, G, Barbé, CJ, Depagne, C, Bartlett, JR, “TEM and Ellipsometry Studies of Nanolaminate Oxide Films Prepared Using Atomic Layer Deposition.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 243 (1–4) 265–277 (2005)
Kasikov, A, Aarik, J, Mändar, H, Moppel, M, Pärs, M, Uustare, T, “Refractive Index Gradients in TiO2 Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 39 (1) 54–60 (2006)
Shin-ichi, Z, Motokoshi, S, Nakatsuka, M, Yamanaka, T, “Large-Area Optical Coatings with Uniform Thickness Grown by Surface Chemical Reactions for High-Power Laser Applications.” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 41 (1R) 160–165 (2002)
Tohru, H, Katsunori, Y, Junji, Y, Hiroshi, K, Fumio, K, Kenichi, I, “Fabrication of a ZnSe-Based Vertical Fabry-Perot Cavity Using SiO2/TiO2 Multilayer Reflectors and Resonant Emission Characteristics.” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 33 (7A) 3960–3961 (1994)
Chao, S, Wang, W-H, Lee, C-C, “Low-Loss Dielectric Mirror with Ion-Beam-Sputtered TiO2–SiO2 Mixed Films.” Appl. Opt., 40 (13) 2177–2182 (2001)
Battaglin, C, Caccavale, F, Menelle, A, Montecchi, M, Nichelatti, E, Nicoletti, F, Polato, P, “Characterisation of Antireflective TiO2//SiO2 Coatings by Complementary Techniques.” Thin Solid Films, 351 (1–2) 176–179 (1999)
Lee, JH, Jang, GE, Jun, YH, “Investigation and Evaluation of Structural Color of TiO2 Coating on Stainless Steel.” Ceram. Int., 38S S661–S664 (2012)
Kim, W-H, Park, S-J, Son, J-Y, Kim, H, “Ru Nanostructure Fabrication Using an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Nanotemplate and Highly Conformal Ru Atomic Layer Deposition.” Nanotechnology, 19 (4) 045302 (2008)
Kim, W-H, Lee, H-B-R, Heo, K, Lee, YK, Chung, T-M, Kim, C-G, Hong, S, Heo, J, Kim, H, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Ni Thin Films and Application to Area-Selective Deposition.” J. Electrochem. Soc., 158 (1) D1–D5 (2011)
Kim, W-H, Oh, I-K, Kim, M-K, Maeng, WJ, Lee, C-W, Lee, G, Lansalot-Matras, C, Noh, W, Thompson, D, Chu, D, Kim, H, “Atomic Layer Deposition of B2O3/SiO2 Thin Films and Their Application in an Efficient Diffusion Doping Process.” J. Mater. Chem. C, 2 (29) 5805–5811 (2014)
Ritala, M, Leskelä, M, Johansson, L-S, Niinistö, L, “Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Titanium Dioxide Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Epitaxy.” Thin Solid Films, 228 (1) 32–35 (1993)
Aarik, J, Aidla, A, Kiisler, A-A, Uustare, T, Sammelselg, V, “Effect of Crystal Structure on Optical Properties of TiO2 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.” Thin Solid Films, 305 (1–2) 270–273 (1997)
Ritala, M, Leskelä, M, Niinistö, L, Prohaska, T, Friedbacher, G, Grasserbauer, M, “Surface Roughness Reduction in Atomic Layer Epitaxy Growth of Titanium Dioxide Thin Films.” Thin Solid Films, 249 (2) 155–162 (1994)
Lee, JH, Jang, GE, “Reflectance Enhancement by Multi-layered TiO2/SiO2 Coating on Stainless Steel Substrate for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.” J. Ceram. Process. Res., 13 (2) S219–S223 (2012)
Lin, C-W, Chen, K-P, Hsiao, C-N, Lin, S, Lee, C-K, “Design and Fabrication of An Alternating Dielectric Multi-layer Device for Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor.” Sens. Actuators B: Chem., 113 (1) 169–176 (2006)
Nam, T, Kim, J-M, Kim, M-K, Kim, H, Kim, W-H, “Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2, Al2O3, and ZnO Thin Films.” J. Korean Phys. Soc., 59 (2) 452–457 (2011)
Aarik, J, Aidla, A, Mändar, H, Sammelselg, V, “Anomalous Effect of Temperature on Atomic Layer Deposition of Titanium Dioxide.” J. Cryst. Growth, 220 (4) 531–537 (2000)
Groner, MD, Fabreguette, FH, Elam, JW, George, SM, “Low-Temperature Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition.” Chem. Mater., 16 (4) 639–645 (2004)
Hausmann, DM, Kim, E, Becker, J, Gordon, RG, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors.” Chem. Mater., 14 (10) 4350–4358 (2002)
Lim, GT, Kim, D-H, “Characteristics of TiOx Films Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Tetrakis-dimethyl-amido-titanium and Water.” Thin Solid Films, 498 (1–2) 254–258 (2006)
Moulder, J, Stickle, W, Sobol, P, Bomben, K, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Perkin-Elmer Corp, Eden Prairie (1992)
Hopfengärtner, G, Borgmann, D, Rademacher, I, Wedler, G, Hums, E, Spitznagel, GW, “XPS Studies of Oxidic Model Catalysts: Internal Standards and Oxidation Numbers.” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 63 (2) 91–116 (1993)
Nylund, A, Olefjord, I, “Surface Analysis of Oxidized Aluminium. 1. Hydration of Al2O3 and Decomposition of Al(OH)3 in a Vacuum as Studied by ESCA.” Surf. Interface Anal., 21 (5) 283–289 (1994)
King, JS, Graugnard, E, Summers, CJ, “TiO2 Inverse Opals Fabricated Using Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition.” Adv. Mater., 17 (8) 1010–1013 (2005)
Kukli, K, Ritala, M, Leskelä, M, Jokinen, J, “Atomic Layer Epitaxy Growth of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films From a Novel Al(CH3)2Cl Precursor and H2O.” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 15 (4) 2214–2218 (1997)
Macleod, HA, Thin-Film Optical Filters. CRC Press, Tucson (2010)
This work was supported by Incheon National University Research Grant in 2013.
About this article
Cite this article
Kim, WH., Kim, H. & Lee, HBR. Uniform color coating of multilayered TiO2/Al2O3 films by atomic layer deposition. J Coat Technol Res 14, 177–183 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-016-9840-2
- Color coating
- Atomic layer deposition
- TiO2/Al2O3 multilayer