Towards a practical metric of surface gloss for metallic coatings from automotive industry

  • Mengting Wu
  • Haisong XuEmail author
  • Zhehong Wang
  • Haifeng Li


The specular gloss of metallic coatings from the automotive industry can be well measured by current glossmeters when the geometry is appropriately chosen from 20°, 60°, and 85° based on the gloss levels observed. However, the measurements are discontinuous and even nonmonotonic at the breakpoints dividing samples into different gloss levels in the whole range, which causes confusion and inconvenience for industry applications. In this study, attempts were made to link the measurements at the three geometries to be continuous monotonically and in the meanwhile to improve the accuracy of estimating visual gloss. A psychophysical experiment based on a magnitude method was carried out to assess the gloss of metallic coatings with different colors and textures. The visually scaled gloss data were compared with spectrophotometric measurements and instrumental specular gloss values under different geometries. With different weighing coefficients for measurements at individual geometries depending on the gloss levels, a model was proposed to describe the visual surface gloss of metallic coatings comprehensively via a practical metric based on the geometry-dependent measurements. In this way, each sample would have a unique overall gloss value highly correlated with its perceptual evaluation over the entire gloss range.


Gloss Metallic coatings Visual assessment Glossmeter Practical metric 



This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2013CB328802.


  1. 1.
    Pointer, M, “A Framework for the Measurement of Visual Appearance.” CIE Publication 175-2006, 2006Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huang, Z, Xu, H, Luo, MR, Cui, G, Feng, H, “Assessing Total Differences for Effective Samples Having Variations in Color, Coarseness, and Glint.” Chin. Opt. Lett., 8 (7) 717–720 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dekker, N, Kirchner, EJJ, Super, R, van den Kieboom, GJ, Gottenbos, R, “Total Appearance Differences for Metallic and Pearlescent Materials: Contributions from Color and Texture.” Color Res. Appl., 36 (1) 4–14 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mirjalili, F, Moradian, S, Ameri, F, “A New Approach to Investigate Relationships Between Certain Instrumentally Measured Appearance Parameters and Their Visually Perceived Equivalents in the Automotive Industry.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 11 (3) 341–350 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mirjalili, F, Moradian, S, Ameri, F, “Derivation of an Instrumentally Based Geometric Appearance Index for the Automotive Industry.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 11 (6) 853–864 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hunter, RS, Harold, RW, The Measurement of Appearance. Wiley, New York, 1987Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nadal, ME, Zwinkels, JC, Nöel, M, “Specular Gloss Scales Comparison Between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Research Council of Canada.” J. Coat. Technol., 75 (943) 45–54 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Obein, G, Knoblauch, K, Viéot, F, “Difference Scaling of Gloss: Nonlinearity, Binocularity, and Constancy.” J. Vis., 4 (9) 711–720 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Passaro, C, Bidoret, JS, Baron, S, Delafosse, D, Eterradossi, O, “Gloss Evaluation and Prediction of Achromatic Low-Gloss Textured Surfaces from the Automotive Industry.” Color Res. Appl. (2015). doi: 10.1002/col.21946 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leloup, FB, Obein, G, Pointer, MR, Hanselaer, P, “Toward the Soft Metrology of Surface Gloss: A Review.” Color Res. Appl., 39 (6) 559–570 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    ISO 2813, Paints and Varnishes, Measurement of Specular Gloss of Nonmetallic Paint Films at 20 Degrees, 60 Degrees and 85 Degrees. ISO, Geneva, 1994Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ASTM, Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 1999Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Billmeyer, FW, O’Donnell, FX, “Visual Gloss Scaling and Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Painted Specimens.” Color Res. Appl., 12 (6) 315–326 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lindstrand, M, Gloss: Measurement, Characterization and Visualization-in the Light of Visual Evaluation. UniTryck, Linköping, 2002Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ji, W, Pointer, MR, Luo, MR, Dakin, J, “Gloss as an Aspect of the Measurement of Appearance.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 23 (1) 22–33 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    CIE Publication 15:2004, Colorimetry, 3rd ed. Central Bureau of the Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, Vienna, 2004Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kirchner, E, van den Kieboom, GJ, Nio, L, Super, R, Gottenbos, R, “Observation of Visual Texture of Metallic and Pearlescent Materials.” Color Res. Appl., 32 (4) 256–266 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fairchild, MD, Color Appearance Models, 3rd ed. Wiley, New York, 2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gong, R, Xu, H, Wang, Q, Wang, Z, Li, H, “Investigation of Perceptual Attributes for Mobile Display Image Quality.” Opt. Eng., 52 (8) 083104 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    ISO 105, Textiles-Tests for Color Fastness, Part A02: Grey Scale for Assessing Change in Color. ISO, Geneva, 1993Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ferwerda, JA, Pellacini, F, Greenberg, DP, “A Psychophysically-Based Model of Surface Gloss Perception.” Proc. SPIE, 4299 291–301 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mengting Wu
    • 1
  • Haisong Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zhehong Wang
    • 2
  • Haifeng Li
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and EngineeringZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Hangzhou Institute of Test and Calibration for Quality and Technology SupervisionHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations