A small-scale waterjet test method for screening novel foul-release coatings

  • Chin-Sing Lim
  • Gary H. Dickinson
  • Stacy Sommer
  • Serena Lay-Ming Teo
  • Rajan B. Bodkhe
  • Dean C. Webster
  • Yong Ying Loo


Foul-release marine coatings are viable alternatives to broad-spectrum biocidal coatings. Efficient and economical methods for field testing and screening of novel foul-release coatings are needed to address performance and stability. Short-term tests that challenge coatings with heavy fouling conditions, by employing small coupons, are desirable to coating developers as this method allows many formulations to be screened at lower material cost and time. By coupling the field test to a miniature waterjet cleaning test, foul-release coatings may also be assessed for ease of fouling removal. Here, the feasibility of using small coupons over large panels for screening of foul-release coatings in static immersion field tests is investigated. Experimental and commercial foul-release coatings were field tested using a large panel, long term (1 year) test and a small coupon, short term (1 month) test. Results were very similar between the two assays, with each clearly distinguishing coating that performed well from those that performed poorly. The method may serve as a useful initial screen for early stage coatings.


Foul-release coatings Biofouling Antifouling Barnacle adhesion Field test Siloxane–polyurethane 



This work was supported by the US Office for Naval Research Contract Nos. N00014-08-1-1025, N00014-09-1-1193, and N00014-11-1-0032, and the Singapore Defence Research & Technology Office Grant POD0914243. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Aromatrix Consulting Pte Ltd and the Republic of Singapore Yacht Club.


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Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chin-Sing Lim
    • 1
  • Gary H. Dickinson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stacy Sommer
    • 3
  • Serena Lay-Ming Teo
    • 1
  • Rajan B. Bodkhe
    • 3
  • Dean C. Webster
    • 3
  • Yong Ying Loo
    • 4
  1. 1.Tropical Marine Science InstituteNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of BiologyThe College of New JerseyEwingUSA
  3. 3.Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials and Center for Nanoscale Science and EngineeringNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA
  4. 4.Aromatrix Consulting Engineers Pte LtdSingaporeSingapore

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