Skip to main content

Wood surfaces protected with transparent multilayer UV-cured coatings reinforced with nanosilica and nanoclay. Part II: Application of a standardized test method to study the effect of relative humidity on scratch resistance

Abstract

Coated wood surfaces of components constituting flooring and furniture for interior end uses that exhibit good tribological properties are highly desirable. Surfaces of yellow birch wood (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) were protected with six different types of multilayer coatings (MCs) developed in this study. Each MC consisted of three layers: primer, sealer, and topcoat. UV-curable primer and topcoat formulations were, respectively, reinforced with a hydrophobic fumed silica (NS: 0 and 0.5 wt% in the formulation) and nanoclay (NC: 0, 1, and 3 wt% in the formulation). The scratch resistance of MCs on wood surfaces conditioned at 40% and 80% relative humidity (RH) was quantitatively and qualitatively studied. Quantitative evaluation was performed according to a standardized scratch test, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was used for qualitative evaluation. Statistical results have shown that NS, NC, and NS × NC do not have a significant effect on scratch resistance of coated wood surfaces, whereas the effect of RH is significant. Regardless of RH, SEM images reveal that: (i) there is no sign of lack of adhesion between coating layers and the MCs/wood surfaces interface and (ii) all the MCs seem to have a ductile/brittle response to scratching. Qualitative information was in accordance with quantitative results.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

References

  1. 1.

    Panshin, AJ, deZeeuw, C, “Introduction.” In: McGraw-Hill (ed.) Textbook of Wood Technology: Structure, Identification, Properties and Uses of the Commercial Woods of United States and Canada, pp. 1–7. McGraw-Hill, New-York, 1980

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Winandy, JE, “Wood Properties.” In: Arntzen, CJ (ed.) Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science, pp. 549–561. Academic Press, Orlando, 1994

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Panshin, AJ, deZeeuw, C, “The Woody Cell Wall.” In: McGraw-Hill (ed.) Textbook of Wood Technology: Structure, Identification, Properties and Uses of the Commercial Woods of United States and Canada, pp. 85–124. McGraw-Hill, New-York, 1980

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Stevanovic, JT, Perrin, D, “Formation et structure du bois.” In: Romandes, PPeU (ed.) Chimie du bois, pp. 47–67. Press Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, Lausanne, 2009

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Rowell, RM, “Moisture Properties.” In: Rowell, RM (ed.) Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, pp. 77–98. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bongiovanni, R, Montefusco, F, Priola, A, Macchioni, N, Lazzeri, S, Sozzi, L, Ameduri, B, “High Performance UV-Cured Coatings for Wood Protection.” Prog. Org. Coat., 45 359–363 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Rahman, MBA, Ghani, NA, Salleh, NGN, Basri, M, Rahman, R, Salleh, A, “Development of Coating Materials from Liquid Wax Esters for Wood Top-Based Coating.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 8 229–236 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Sun, Q, Yu, H, Liu, Y, Li, J, Lu, Y, Hunt, JF, “Improvement of Water Resistance and Dimensional Stability of Wood Through Titanium Dioxide Coating.” Holzforschung, 64 757–761 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ximenes, FA, Evans, PD, “Protection of Wood Using Oxy–Aluminum Compounds.” For. Prod. J., 56 116–122 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Wallstrom, L, Lindberg, KAH, Johansson, J, “Wood Surface Stabilization.” Holz Als Roh-und Werkst., 53 87–92 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Namyslo, JC, Kaufmann, DE, “Chemical Improvement of Surfaces. Part 1: Novel Functional Modification of Wood with Covalently Bound Organoboron Compounds.” Holzforschung, 63 627–632 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Podgorski, L, Chevet, B, Onic, L, Merlin, A, “Modification of Wood Wettability by Plasma and Corona Treatments.” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 20 103–111 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Poaty, B, Riedl, B, Blanchet, P, Blanchard, V, Stafford, L, “Improved Water Repellency of Black Spruce Wood Surfaces After Treatment in Carbon Tetrafluoride Plasmas.” Wood Sci. Technol., 47 411–422 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Korkut, S, Budakci, M, “The Effects of High-Temperature Heat-Treatment on Physical Properties and Surface Roughness of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia L.) Wood.” Wood Res., 55 67–78 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kocaefe, D, Saha, S, “Comparison of the Protection Effectiveness of Acrylic Polyurethane Coatings Containing Bark Extracts on Three Heat-Treated North American Wood Species: Surface Degradation.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 258 5283–5290 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Mathiazhagan, A, Rani, J, “Nanotechnology—A New Prospective in Organic Coating—Review.” Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl., 2 225–237 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Zhou, SX, Wu, LM, “Development of Nanotechnology-Based Organic Coatings.” Compos. Interfaces, 16 281–292 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Fernando, RH, “Nanocomposite and Nanostructured Coatings: Recent Advancements.” In: Fernando, RH, Sung, L-P (eds.) Nanotechnology Applications in Coatings, pp. 2–21. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2009

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Utracki, LA, “Basic Elements of Polymeric Nanocomposite Technology.” In: Smithers Rapra Technology (ed.) Clay-Containing Polymeric Nanocomposites, p. 82. Smithers Rapra Technology, Shrewsbury, 2004

  20. 20.

    Haynes, WM, “Hardness of Minerals and Ceramics.” In: Weast, R, Astle, M (eds.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, p. 225. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2013

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Chung, H, Kong, S, Kim, D, “Study on the Compressive Modulus of Nylon-11/Silica Nanocomposites.” J. Nanomater., 11 1–7 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Yasmin, A, Luo, JJ, Abot, JL, Daniel, IM, “Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of Clay/Epoxy Nanocomposites.” Compos. Sci. Technol., 66 2415–2422 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Dowbenko, R, Friedlander, C, Gruber, G, Prucnal, P, Wismer, M, “Radiation Curing of Organic Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 11 71–103 (1983)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Senich, GA, Florin, RE, “Radiation Curing of Coatings.” J. Macromol. Sci. A, 24 239–324 (1984)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Hoyle, CE, “Photocurable Coatings.” In: Hoyle, CE, Kinstle, JF (eds.) Radiation Curing of Polymeric Materials, pp. 1–16. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1990

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Schrof, W, Menzel, K, “Formulations.” In: Schwalm, R (ed.) UV Coatings: Basics, Recent Developments and New Applications, pp. 140–159. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Clough, RL, “High-Energy Radiation and Polymers: A Review of Commercial Processes and Emerging Applications.” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 185 8–33 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Schwalm, R, “Introduction to Coatings Technology.” In: Elsevier (ed.) UV Coatings: Basic, Recent Developments and New Applications, pp. 1–18. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007

  29. 29.

    Gustafsson, L, Börjesson, P, “Life Cycle Assessment in Green Chemistry: A Comparison of Various Industrial Wood Surface Coatings.” Int. J. Life Cycle Assess., 12 151–159 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    van Meel, PA, Erich, SJF, Huinink, HP, Kopinga, K, de Jong, J, Adan, OCG, “Moisture Transport in Coated Wood.” Prog. Org. Coat., 72 686–694 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Ozgenc, O, Hiziroglu, S, Yildiz, UC, “Weathering Properties of Wood Species Treated with Different Coating Applications.” BioResources, 7 4875–4888 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Cristea, VM, Riedl, B, Blanchet, P, “Enhancing the Performance of Exterior Waterborne Coatings for Wood by Inorganic Nanosized UV Absorbers.” Prog. Org. Coat., 69 432–441 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Scrinzi, E, Rossi, S, Deflorian, F, Zanella, C, “Evaluation of Aesthetic Durability of Waterborne Polyurethane Coatings Applied on Wood for Interior Applications.” Prog. Org. Coat., 72 81–87 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Barletta, M, Gisario, A, “The Role of the Substrate in Micro-scale Scratching of Epoxy–Polyester Films.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 257 4449–4463 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Sung, L-P, Comer, J, Forster, A, Hu, H, Floryancic, B, Brickweg, L, Fernando, R, “Scratch Behavior of Nano-alumina/Polyurethane Coatings.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 5 419–430 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Amerio, E, Fabbri, P, Malucelli, G, Messori, M, Sangermano, M, Taurino, R, “Scratch Resistance of Nano-silica Reinforced Acrylic Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 62 129–133 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Mohamadpour, S, Pourabbas, B, Fabbri, P, “Anti-scratch and Adhesion Properties of Photo-curable Polymer/Clay Nanocomposite Coatings Based on Methacrylate Monomers.” Sci. Iran., 18 765–771 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Kenneth, H, Allan, M, “Tribological Properties of Coatings.” In: Kenneth, H, Allan, M (eds.) Coatings Tribology: Properties, Techniques and Applications in Surface Engineering, pp. 125–256. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Dasari, A, Yu, Z-Z, Mai, Y-W, “Fundamental Aspects and Recent Progress on Wear/Scratch Damage in Polymer Nanocomposites.” Mater. Sci. Eng. R, 63 31–80 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Wong, M, Moyse, A, Lee, F, Sue, HJ, “Study of Surface Damage of Polypropylene Under Progressive Loading.” J. Mater. Sci., 39 3293–3308 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Lörinczová, I, Decker, C, “Scratch Resistance of UV-Cured Acrylic Clearcoats.” Surf. Coat. Int. B, 89 133–143 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Sow, C, Riedl, B, Blanchet, P, “UV-Waterborne Polyurethane–Acrylate Nanocomposite Coatings Containing Alumina and Silica Nanoparticles for Wood: Mechanical, Optical, and Thermal Properties Assessment.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 8 211–221 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Sangermano, M, Messori, M, “Scratch Resistance Enhancement of Polymer Coatings.” Macromol. Mater. Eng., 295 603–612 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Sangermano, M, Messori, M, Martin-Gallego, M, Rizza, G, Voit, B, “Scratch Resistant Tough Nanocomposite Epoxy Coatings Based on Hyperbranched Polyesters.” Polymer, 50 5647–5652 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Nkeuwa, WN, Riedl, B, Landry, V, “Wood Surfaces Protected with Transparent Multilayer UV-Cured Coatings Reinforced with Nanosilica and Nanoclay. Part I: Morphological Study and Effect of Relative Humidity on Adhesion Strength.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 11 283–301 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Nkeuwa, WN, Riedl, B, Landry, V, “UV-Cured Clay/Based Nanocomposite Topcoats for Wood Furniture. Part I: Morphological Study, Water Vapor Transmission Rate and Optical Clarity.” Prog. Org. Coat., 77 1–11 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Wang, SH, Zhang, Y, Ren, WT, Zhang, YX, Lin, HF, “Morphology, Mechanical and Optical Properties of Transparent BR/Clay Nanocomposites.” Polym. Test., 24 766–774 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Wicks, ZW, Jones, FN, Pappas, SP, Wicks, DA, “Color and Appearance.” In: Wiley Inc. (ed.) Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, pp. 382–416. Wiley Inc., Hoboken, 2007

  49. 49.

    Wiedenhoeft, A, Miller, R, “Structure and Function of Wood.” In: Rowell, RM (ed.) Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites, pp. 9–33. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    de Moura, LF, Hernandez, RE, “Evaluation of Varnish Coating Performance for Two Surfacing Methods on Sugar Maple Wood.” Wood Fiber Sci., 37 355–366 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Hernandez, RE, Cool, J, “Evaluation of Three Surfacing Methods on Paper Birch Wood in Relation to Water- and solvent-Borne Coating Performance.” Wood Fiber Sci., 40 459–469 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    de Meijer, M, Militz, H, “Wet Adhesion of Low-VOC Coatings on wood: A Quantitative Analysis.” Prog. Org. Coat., 38 223–240 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Meijer, M, Thurich, K, Militz, H, “Comparative Study on Penetration Characteristics of Modern Wood Coatings.” Wood Sci. Technol., 32 347–365 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Rijckaert, V, Stevens, M, van Acker, J, “Effect of Some Formulation Parameters on the Penetration and Adhesion of Water-Borne Primers into Wood.” Holz Als Roh-und Werkst., 59 344–350 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Landry, V, Riedl, B, Blanchet, P, “Nanoclay Dispersion Effects on UV Coatings Curing.” Prog. Org. Coat., 62 400–408 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Piao, C, Winandy, JE, Shupe, TF, “From Hydrophilicity to Hydrophobicity: A Critical Review: Part I. Wettability and Surface Behavior.” Wood Fiber Sci., 42 490–510 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Barletta, M, Gisario, A, Trovalusci, F, Vesco, S, “Visual Appearance and Scratch Resistance of High Performance Thermoset and Thermoplastic Powder Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 76 244–256 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Amerio, E, Sangermano, M, Colucci, G, Malucelli, G, Messori, M, Taurino, R, Fabbri, P, “UV Curing of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Coatings Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Blocks.” Macromol. Mater. Eng., 293 700–707 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Bolon, DA, Lucas, GM, Olson, DR, Webb, KK, “Effect of Humidity and Elevated Temperatures on Physical Properties of UV-Cured Polymers.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 25 543–553 (1980)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Nkeuwa, WN, Riedl, B, Landry, V, “UV-Cured Clay/Based Nanocomposite Topcoats for Wood Furniture. Part II: Dynamic Viscoelastic Behavior and Effect of Relative Humidity on the Mechanical Properties.” Prog. Org. Coat., 77 12–23 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Chawla, CP, Poklacki, ES, “Effect of Relative Humidity on the Mechanical Properties of UV-Curable Optical Fiber Coatings.” In: Greenwell, RA, Paul, DK (eds.) Optical Materials Reliability and Testing, pp. 61–66. SPIE, Boston, 1993

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Paul, DR, Robeson, LM, “Polymer Nanotechnology: Nanocomposites.” Polymer, 49 3187–3204 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Bharadwaj, RK, Mehrabi, AR, Hamilton, C, Trujillo, C, Murga, M, Fan, R, Chavira, A, Thompson, AK, “Structure–Property Relationships in Cross-Linked Polyester–Clay Nanocomposites.” Polymer, 43 3699–3705 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Goertzen, WK, Kessler, MR, “Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Fumed Silica/Cyanate Ester Nanocomposites.” Composites A, 39 761–768 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Corcione, CE, Frigione, M, “UV-Cured Polymer–Boehmite Nanocomposite as Protective Coating for Wood Elements.” Prog. Org. Coat., 74 781–787 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Sangermano, M, Gaspari, E, Vescovo, L, Messori, M, “Enhancement of Scratch-Resistance Properties of Methacrylated UV-Cured Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 72 287–291 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Barletta, M, Gisario, A, Rubino, G, “Scratch Response of High-Performance Thermoset and Thermoplastic Powders Deposited by the Electrostatic Spray and ‘Hot Dipping’ Fluidised Bed Coating Methods: The Role of the Contact Condition.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 205 5186–5198 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the Conseil de recherches en sciences naturelles et en génie (CRSNG), ArboraNano and NanoQuébec for their financial support, FPInnovations (Secondary wood products manufacturing) for its collaboration with Université Laval, Département des sciences du bois et de la forêt as well as the technicians who greatly contributed to laboratory experiments.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bernard Riedl.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nkeuwa, W.N., Riedl, B. & Landry, V. Wood surfaces protected with transparent multilayer UV-cured coatings reinforced with nanosilica and nanoclay. Part II: Application of a standardized test method to study the effect of relative humidity on scratch resistance. J Coat Technol Res 11, 993–1011 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-014-9609-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Wood
  • UV cure
  • Multilayer coatings
  • Nanoparticles
  • Scratch resistance
  • Relative humidity