Skip to main content

Mechanical properties of UV-waterborne varnishes reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals

Abstract

There are many instances in the literature of nanocellulose-thermoplastic composites, but there are few studies on coatings reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The overall objective of this research was to develop organic nanoparticles-reinforced UV-water-based coatings for wood applications and to study the effect, mainly on wear properties, of the final composite coatings. CNC was mixed in the varnishes to improve the mechanical properties of the coatings. One of the key aspects in the technology of nanocomposites remains the dispersion of the nanoparticles within the matrix as well as its affinity with the matrix. To quantify the dispersion, efficient methods of characterization are needed in order to reveal the nanosized particles. In this article, a novel characterization method based on atomic force microscopy was employed to characterize such nanocomposite coatings, by measuring surface nanoroughness, which is clearly correlated with quality of dispersion and mechanical properties. CNC was modified by either alkyl quaternary ammonium bromides or acryloyl chloride. The mechanical properties (abrasion and scratch resistances, hardness and adhesion) were analyzed and compared to the reference varnish without nanoparticles. The modified CNC addition in UV-water-based coatings results in an approximately 30–40% increase in wear resistance (abrasion and scratch), without any loss of appearance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. 1.

    Decker, C, Masson, F, Schwalm, R, “How to Speed Up the UV Curing of Water-Based acrylic Coatings.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 1 (2) 127–136 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Liptakova, E, Kudela, J, Sarvas, J, “Study of the System Wood-Coating Material—I. Wood-Liquid Coating Material.” Holzforschung, 54 (2) 189–196 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Tauber, A, Scherzer, T, Mehnert, R, “UV Curing of Aqueous Polyurethane Acrylate Dispersions. A Comparative Study by Real-Time FTIR Spectroscopy and Pilot Scale Curing.” J. Coat. Technol., 72 (911) 51–60 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Landry, V, Blanchet, P, Riedl, B, “Mechanical and Optical Properties of Clay-Based Nanocomposites Coatings for Wood Flooring.” Prog. Org. Coat., 67 (4) 381–388 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sow, C, Riedl, B, Blanchet, P, “UV-Waterborne Polyurethane-Acrylate Nanocomposite Coatings Containing Alumina and Silica Nanoparticles for Wood: Mechanical, Optical, and Thermal Properties Assessment.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 8 (2) 211–221 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bautista, Y, Gonzalez, J, Gilabert, J, Ibáñez, MJ, Sanz, V, “Correlation Between the Wear Resistance, and the Scratch Resistance, for Nanocomposite Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 70 (4) 178–185 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Bauer, F, Glasel, HJ, Decker, U, Ernst, H, Freyer, A, Hartmann, E, Sauerland, V, Mehnert, R, “Trialkoxysilane Grafting onto Nanoparticles for the Preparation of Clear Coat Polyacrylate Systems with Excellent Scratch Performance.” Prog. Org. Coat., 47 (2) 147–153 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bauer, F, Ernst, H, Hirsch, D, Naumov, S, Pelzing, M, Sauerland, V, Mehnert, R, “Preparation of Scratch and Abrasion Resistant Polymeric Nanocomposites by Monomer Grafting onto Nanoparticles, 5.” Macromol. Chem. Phys., 205 (12) 1587–1593 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Bauer, F, Flyunt, R, Czihal, K, Buchmeiser, MR, Langguth, H, Mehnert, R, “Nano/Micro Particle Hybrid Composites for Scratch and Abrasion Resistant Polyacrylate Coatings.” Macromol. Mater. Eng., 291 (5) 493–498 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Miao, CW, Hamad, WY, “Cellulose Reinforced Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites: A Critical Review.” Cellulose, 20 (5) 2221–2262 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Poaty, B, Vardanyan, V, Wilczak, L, Chauve, G, Riedl, B, “Modification of Cellulose Nanocrystals as Reinforcement Derivatives for Wood Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 77 (4) 813–820 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Revol, JF, Bradford, H, Giasson, J, Marchessault, RH, Gray, DG, “Helicoidal Self-Ordering of Cellulose Microfibrils in Aqueous Suspension.” Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 14 (3) 170–172 (1992)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Fleming, K, Gray, DG, Matthews, S, “Cellulose Crystallites.” Chemistry, 7 (9) 1831–1835 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Helbert, W, Cavaille, JY, Dufresne, A, “Thermoplastic Nanocomposites Filled with Wheat Straw Cellulose Whiskers. 1. Processing and Mechanical Behavior.” Polym. Compos., 17 (4) 604–611 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Revol, JF, Godbout, L, Dong, XM, Gray, DG, Chanzy, H, Maret, G, “Chiral Nematic Suspensions of Cellulose Crystallites—Phase-Separation and Magnetic-Field Orientation.” Liquid Crystals, 16 (1) 127–134 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Dong, XM, Revol, JF, Gray, DG, “Effect of Microcrystallite Preparation Conditions on the Formation of Colloid Crystals of Cellulose.” Cellulose, 5 (1) 19–32 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Heux, L, Dinand, E, Vignon, MR, “Structural Aspects in Ultrathin Cellulose Microfibrils Followed by C-13 CP-MAS NMR.” Carbohydr. Polym., 40 (2) 115–124 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Sugiyama, J, Chanzy, H, Revol, JF, “On the Polarity of Cellulose in the Cell-Wall of Valonia.” Planta, 193 (2) 260–265 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Favier, V, Chanzy, H, Cavaille, JY, “Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced by Cellulose Whiskers.” Macromolecules, 28 (18) 6365–6367 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Bauer, F, Mehnert, R, “UV Curable Acrylate Nanocomposites: Properties and Applications.” J. Polym. Res., 12 (6) 483–491 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Farrokhpay, S, “Application of Spectroscopy and Microscopy Techniques in Surface Coatings Evaluation: A Review.” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev., 47 (3) 233–243 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Thometzek, P, Ludwig, A, Karbach, A, Kohler, K, “Effects of Morphology and Surface Treatment of Inorganic Pigments on Waterborne Coating Properties.” Prog. Org. Coat., 36 (4) 201–209 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Vardanyan, V, Poaty, B, Chauve, G, Landry, V, Galstian, T, Riedl, B, “Wear Resistance of UV-Curable of Wood Water-Based Coatings with Added Cellulose Nanocrystals.” In: Aliofkhazraei, M (ed.) Anti-Abrasive Nanocoatings: Current and Future Applications, 2014. http://www.amazon.fr/Anti-Abrasive-Nanocoatings-Current-Future-Applications/dp/0857092111

  24. 24.

    Beck, S, Bouchard, J, Berry, R, “Controlling the Reflection Wavelength of Iridescent Solid Films of Nanocrystalline Cellulose.” Biomacromolecules, 12 (1) 167–172 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Nypelo, T, Osterberg, M, Zu, XJ, Laine, J, “Preparation of Ultrathin Coating Layers Using Surface Modified Silica Nanoparticles.” Colloids Surf. A, 392 (1) 313–321 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Bibette, J, Leal-Calderon, F, Schmitt, V, Poulin, P, “Introduction.” In: Emulsion Science—Basic Principles. An Overview, Vol. 181, pp. 1–4. Springer, Berlin, 2002

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Tigges, B, Moller, M, Weichold, O, “ZnO Nanoparticle-Containing Emulsions for Transparent, Hydrophobic UV-Absorbent Films.” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 345 (1) 41–45 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Nobel, ML, Picken, SJ, Mendes, E, “Waterborne Nanocomposite Resins for Automotive Coating Applications.” Prog. Org. Coat., 58 (2–3) 96–104 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Sow, C, “Revêtements Nanocomposites UV-Aqueux pour le bois à usage intérieur.” Ph.D. thesis, Université Laval, 2010

Download references

Acknowledgments

Thanks to the Fonds de Recherche Nature et Technologie du Québec, the Conseil de Recherches en Sciences Naturelles et Génie du Canada, and Arboranano for funding this research as well as FPInnovations’ pilot plant for the production of CNC.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bernard Riedl.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vardanyan, V., Poaty, B., Chauve, G. et al. Mechanical properties of UV-waterborne varnishes reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals. J Coat Technol Res 11, 841–852 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-014-9598-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cellulose nanocrystals
  • CNC
  • Coating
  • Dispersion
  • Surface modification
  • Mechanical properties
  • Wear resistance