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Assessing and Raising Concerns About Duplicate Publication, Authorship Transgressions and Data Errors in a Body of Preclinical Research

Abstract

Authorship transgressions, duplicate data reporting and reporting/data errors compromise the integrity of biomedical publications. Using a standardized template, we raised concerns with journals about each of these characteristics in 33 pairs of publications originating from 15 preclinical (animal) trials reported by a group of researchers. The outcomes of interest were journal responses, including time to acknowledgement of concerns, time to decision, content of decision letter, and disposition of publications at 1 year. Authorship transgressions affected 27/36 (75%) publications. The median proportion of duplicate data within pairs of publications was 45% (interquartile range 29–57). Data/reporting discrepancies [median 3 (1–5)] were present in 28/33 (85%) pairs. Journals acknowledged receipt of concerns for 53% and 94% of publications by 1 month and 9 months, respectively. After 1 year, journals had communicated decisions for 16/36 (44%) publications. None of the decision letters specifically addressed each of the concerns raised. Decisions were no action, correction and retraction for 9, 3 and 4 publications, respectively: the amounts of duplicate data reporting and data/reporting discrepancies were similar irrespective of journal decision. Authorship transgressions affected 6/9 (67%) publications for which no action was decided. Journal responses to concerns about duplicate publication, authorship transgressions, and data/reporting discrepancies were slow, opaque and inconsistent.

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Notes

  1. This term was used in several retraction notices, sometimes without further explanation, sometimes to indicate authorship transgressions and data duplication.

  2. An affidavit signed by one of the two lead authors of the research, and sent to one of us (AG) in June 2017 during correspondence with a journal investigating the integrity of clinical research published by a member of the group, stated that these two lead authors engaged in systematic reciprocal authorship practices between 2002 and late 2013, such that neither contributed to the other’s research during that period, but accepted gift authorship. A recent statement by the other lead author confirmed the affidavit (The Editors 2018a). The affidavit has been provided to the Editor in Chief of Sci Eng Ethics, and may be made available by the authors upon reasonable request.

  3. As of September 27 2018.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Bonnie Boyle for assistance with data extraction and preliminary assessment of publications.

Funding

The Health Services Research Unit at the University of Aberdeen is funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates. No other funding support.

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Correspondence to Andrew Grey.

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Ethics approval not required for an audit of the process of raising concerns about research integrity.

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Appendices

Appendix A: Preclinical Trials Reported by Drs. Jun Iwamoto and Yoshihiro Sato and Colleagues

Manuscripts with Yoshihiro Sato as co-author

  • A1. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Comparative effects of orchidectomy and sciatic neurectomy on cortical and cancellous bone in young growing rats. J Bone Miner Metab 2003;21:211–6.

  • A2. Iwamoto J, Yeh JK, Takeda T, Ichimura S, Sato Y. Comparative effects of vitamin K and vitamin D supplementation on prevention of osteopenia in calcium-deficient young rats. Bone 2003;33:557–66.

  • A3. Iwamoto J, Shimamura C, Takeda T, Abe H, Ichimura S, Sato Y, et al. Effects of treadmill exercise on bone mass, bone metabolism, and calciotropic hormones in young growing rats. J Bone Miner Metab 2004;22:26–31.

  • A4. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Differential effect of vitamin K and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass in young rats fed normal or low calcium diet. Yonsei Med J 2004;45:314–24.

  • A5. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Response of cortical and cancellous bones to mild calcium deficiency in young growing female rats: a bone histomorphometry study. Exp Anim 2004;53:347–54.

  • A6. Iwamoto J, Yeh JK, Takeda T, Sato Y. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on calcium balance and bone growth in young rats fed normal or low calcium diet. Horm Res 2004;61:293–9.

  • A7. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yamada H. Effects of risedronate on femoral bone mineral density and bone strength in sciatic neurectomized young rats. J Bone Miner Metab 2005;23:456–62.

  • A8. Iwamoto J, Yeh JK, Takeda T, Sato Y. Comparative effects of vitamin K and vitamin D supplementation on calcium balance in young rats fed normal or low calcium diets. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2005;51:211–5.

  • A9. Iwamoto J, Yeh JK, Takeda T, Sato Y. Effects of vitamin K2 administration on calcium balance and bone mass in young rats fed normal or low calcium diet. Horm Res 2005;63:211–9.

  • A10. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yamada H, Shen CL, et al. Preventive effects of risedronate and calcitriol on cancellous osteopenia in rats treated with high-dose glucocorticoid. Exp Anim 2006;55:349–55.

  • A11. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yamada H, Shen CL, et al. Comparative effects of risedronate and calcitriol on cancellous bone in rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006;52:21–7.

  • A12. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yamada H, Yeh JK. Effect of risedronate on the cortical and cancellous bone mass and mechanical properties in ovariectomized rats: a comparison with the effects of alfacalcidol. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006;52:393–401.

  • A13. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yamada H, Yeh JK. Comparative effects of alendronate and alfacalcidol on cancellous and cortical bone mass and bone mechanical properties in ovariectomized rats. Exp Anim 2006;55:357-67.

  • A14. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yamada H, Yeh JK. Therapeutic effect of risedronate on cancellous and cortical bone in ovariectomized osteopenic rats: a comparison with the effects of alfacalcidol. Exp Anim 2006;55:333–42.

  • A15. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yamada H, Yeh JK. Comparative therapeutic effects of alendronate and alfacalcidol on cancellous and cortical bone mass and mechanical properties in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006;52:1–8.

  • A16. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Shen CL, Yeh JK. Beneficial effect of pretreatment and treatment continuation with risedronate and vitamin K2 on cancellous bone loss after ovariectomy in rats: a bone histomorphometry study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006;52:307–15.

  • A17. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Shen CL, Yeh JK. Effect of pre- and post-surgery treatment with risedronate on trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Exp Anim 2006;55:457–66.

  • A18. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Synergistic effect of vitamin K2 and prostaglandin E2 on cancellous bone mass in hypophysectomized young rats. Calcif Tissue Int 2006;79:318–25.

  • A19. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Yamada H, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Effects of alfacalcidol on cancellous and cortical bone mass in rats treated with glucocorticoid: a bone histomorphometry study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2007;53:191–7.

  • A20. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Additive effect of vitamin K2 and risedronate on long bone mass in hypophysectomized young rats. Exp Anim 2007;56:103–10.

  • A21. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Effect of vitamin K2 and growth hormone on the long bones in hypophysectomized young rats: a bone histomorphometry study. J Bone Miner Metab 2007;25:46–53.

  • A22. Iwamoto J, Matsumoto H, Takeda T, Sato Y, Liu X, Yeh JK. Effects of vitamin K(2) and risedronate on bone formation and resorption, osteocyte lacunar system, and porosity in the cortical bone of glucocorticoid-treated rats. Calcif Tissue Int 2008;83:121–8.

  • A23. Iwamoto J, Matsumoto H, Takeda T, Sato Y, Xu E, Yeh JK. Effects of alendronate and alfacalcidol on the femoral bone mass and bone strength in orchidectomized rats. Chin J Physiol 2008;51:331–7.

  • A24. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Takeda T, Yamada H, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Effects of combined administration of alfacalcidol and risedronate on cancellous and cortical bone mass of the tibia in glucocorticoid-treated young rats. Chin J Physiol 2008;51:121–8.

  • A25. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Matsumoto H, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Beneficial effects of combined administration of alendronate and alfacalcidol on cancellous bone mass of the tibia in orchidectomized rats: a bone histomorphometry study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2008;54:11–7.

  • A26. Iwamoto J, Matsumoto H, Tadeda T, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Comparison of the effect of vitamin K(2) and risedronate on trabecular bone in glucocorticoid-treated rats: a bone histomorphometry study. Yonsei Med J 2009;50:189–94.

  • A27. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Matsuura M, Sato Y, Takeda T, Matsumoto H, et al. Influence of ovariectomy on bone turnover and trabecular bone mass in mature cynomolgus monkeys. Yonsei Med J 2009;50:358–67.

  • A28. Iwamoto J, Matsumoto H, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Effects of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bone mass, cortical osteocyte and lacunar system, and porosity in sciatic neurectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 2010;87:254–62.

  • A29. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Sato Y, Matsumoto H, Tadeda T, Yeh JK. Vitamin K2 promotes bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model with or without glucocorticoid treatment. Calcif Tissue Int 2010;86:234–41.

  • A30. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Sato Y, Matsumoto H, Takeda T, Yeh JK. Effect of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bone mass and hepatic lipids in rats with combined methionine-choline deficiency. Bone 2011;48:1015–21.

  • A31. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Sato Y, Matsumoto H, Takeda T, Yeh JK. Vitamin K(2) prevents hyperglycemia and cancellous osteopenia in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. Calcif Tissue Int 2011;88:162–8.

  • A32. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Sato Y, Matsumoto H. Vitamin K(2) improves renal function and increases femoral bone strength in rats with renal insufficiency. Calcif Tissue Int 2012;90:50–9.

  • A48. Iwamoto J, Sato Y, Matsumoto H. Influence of gastrectomy on cortical and cancellous bones in rats. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2013;2013:381616

  • A49. Iwamoto J, Sato Y, Matsumoto H. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol 2014;60(2):71–77.

  • A50. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Sato Y. Effect of intermittent administration of hPTH(1-34) on cortical bone geometry in rats treated with high-dose glucocorticoids. Chin J Physiol 2014;57:231–7

  • A51. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Sato Y. Effect of combined teriparatide and monthly minodronic acid therapy on cancellous bone mass in ovariectomized rats: a bone histomorphometry study. Bone 2014;64:88–94.

Manuscripts Without Yoshihiro Sato as Co-author

  • A33. Iwamoto J, Yeh JK, Schmidt A, Rowley E, Stanfield L, Takeda T, Sato M. Raloxifene and vitamin K2 combine to improve the femoral neck strength of ovariectomized rats. Calcif. Tissue Int. 2005;77(2):119–126

  • A34. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of exercise on tibial and lumbar vertebral bone mass in mature osteopenic rats: bone histomorphometry study. J Orthop Sci. 1998;3(5):257–263.

  • A35. Iwamoto J, Yeh JK, Aloia JF. Differential effect of treadmill exercise on three cancellous bone sites in the young growing rat. Bone. 1999;24(3):163–169

  • A36. Iwamoto J, Yeh JK, Aloia JF. Effect of deconditioning on cortical and cancellous bone growth in the exercise trained young rats. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15(9):1842-1849.

  • A37. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Katsumata T, Tanaka T, Ichimura S, Toyama Y. Effect of etidronate on bone in orchidectomized and sciatic neurectomized adult rats. Bone 2002;30(2):360–367.

  • A38. Moriyama I, Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Toyama Y. Comparative effects of intermittent administration of human parathyroid hormone (1-34) on cancellous and cortical bone loss in tail-suspended and sciatic neurectomized young rats. J Orthop Sci. 2002;7(3):379–385.

  • A39. Shimamura C, Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S, Abe H, Toyama Y. Effect of decreased physical activity on bone mass in exercise-trained young rats. J Orthop Sci 2002;7(3):358–363

  • A40. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Yeh JK, Ichimura S, Toyama Y. Effect of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bones in orchidectomized young rats. Maturitas. 2003;44(1):19–27

  • A41. Iwamoto J, Yeh JK, Takeda T. Effect of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bones in orchidectomized and/or sciatic neurectomized rats. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18(4):776–783

  • A42. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Differential effect of short-term etidronate treatment on three cancellous bone sites in orchidectomized adult rats. Keio J Med. 2004;53(1):12–17

  • A43. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effects of moderate intensity exercise on tibial bone mass in mature ovariectomized rats: bone histomorphometry study. Keio J. Med. 1998;47(3):162–167

  • A44. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effects of exercise on bone mineral density in mature osteopenic rats. J. Bone Miner. Res. 1998;13(8):1308–1317

  • A45. Yeh JK, Niu Q, Evans JF, Iwamoto J, Aloia JF. Effect of circular motion exercise on bone modeling and bone mass in young rats: an animal model of isometric exercise. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2001;1(3):235–240

  • A46. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S, Ushiku N. Effects of moderate running exercise on bone mass and bone metabolism in mature osteopenic rats. J Jpn Bone Morphom 1998;8:107–117.

  • A47. Iwamoto J, Seki A. Effect of combined teriparatide and monthly risedronate therapy on cancellous bone mass in orchidectomized rats: a bone histomorphometry study. Calcif Tiss Int 2015;97:23–31

  • A52. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Nango N. Influence of teriparatide and ibandronate on cortical bone in New Zealand white rabbits: a HR-QCT Study. Calcif Tissue Int 2016;99:535–42

Appendix B: Randomized Preclinical Trials Published by the Researchers

Publications grouped by parent triala Rats N, age, gender Purchase Pre-treatment Site of Research Intervention(s) Year papers submitted
A35, 36 50*3w F Taconic Farms   Winthrop Exercise 1998–9
A45 18*8w F Hilltop USA   Winthrop Exercise 2000
A1, 40 60*5w M Taconic Farms Orx/Neurect Winthrop Orx/Neurect/K 2001–2
A41 90*3m M Hilltop USA Orx Winthrop Orx/Neurect/K 2002
A2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 90* 4w F Hilltop USA   Winthrop Ca/D/K 2003/4
A10, 11 70*4m F Hilltop USA   Winthrop GC/Ris/Cal 2005
A18, 20, 21 90*6w F Hilltop USA Hypophysx Winthrop PgE/K/Ris/GH 2006
A19, 24 130*3m F Hilltop USA   Winthrop GC/Af/Alen/Ris 2006–7
A23, 25 50*3m M Hilltop USA   Winthrop Orx/Alen/Af 2007
A22, 26 50*3m F Hilltop USA   Winthrop GC/K/Ris 26/2/2008
A28 34*retired breeder F Hilltop USA   Winthrop Neurect/K 2010
A7 40*5w M CR Japan   Hamri Neurect/Ris 2005
A12, 13 48*7m F CR Japan   Hamri Ovx/Ris/Af/Alen 2005/6
A14, 15 49*7m F Cr Japan   Hamri Ovx/Ris/Af/Alen 2005/6
A29 30* 5w F CR Japan   Hamri Osteo/GC/K 2009
A30 30* 5w M CR Japan   Hamri MCD/K 2010
A31 30*11w M CR Japan   Hamri Stz/K 2010
A32 30*7w M Japan SLC   Hamri Nephrect/K 2011
A48, 49 30*11w M CR Japan   Hamri Gastrect/K 2013
A50 30*5w F CR Japan   Hamri GC/TPT 2013
A51 50*6w F CR Japan   Hamri Ovx/Min/TPT 2014
A33 43*6m F Japan SLC   Lilly, USA Ralox/K 2004
A16, 17 140*3m F CR USA   Texas Tech Ovx/Ris/K 2006
A37, 42 80*4w M SLC Japan   Sumitomo Orx/Neurect/Etid 2003
A34, 44, 46 20*8w F Clea Japan Ovx Kitasato Exercise 1997
A43 20*23w F Clea Japan Ovx Kitasato Exercise 1998
A3, 39 35*3w F Clea Japan   Kitasato Exercise 2001–2
A38 48*5w M Clea Japan   Not stated Neurect/Tail susp/TPT 2001
A47 50*13w M CR Japan   Not stated Orx/Ris/TPT 2015
A52 42*17-21w F rabbits Kitayama Lab, Japan   Not stated TPT/Ibn 2016
A27 6 cynomolgus monkeys ‘wild-caught’   SICONBREC
Philippines
Ovx 2008
  1. w, week; m, month; M, male; F, female; CR, Charles River; Orx, orchidectomy; Neur, sciatic neurectomy; Hypophysx, hypophysectomy; Ovx, ovariectomry; K, vitamin K; Ca, calcium; D, vitamin D; GC, glucocorticoids; Ris, risedronate; Cal, calcitriol; PGE, prostaglandin E2; GH, growth hormone; Af, alphacalcidol; Alen, alendronate; Osteo, osteotomy; MCD, methionine-choline deficiency; Stz, streptozotocin; Nephrect, nephrectomy; Gastrect, gastrectomy; TPT, teriparatide; Min, minodronic acid; Ralox, raloxifene; Etid, etidronate; Tail susp, tail suspension; Ibn, ibandronate
  2. aSee “Appendix A

Appendix C: Assessment of Text Duplication in Control Sets of Publications that Report Results over Time from Single Source Clinical Trials

  • Text duplication assessed in “Introduction” and “Discussion” sections of each pair of publications, using software designed to assess textual similarities (http://splat.cs.arizona.edu/), sentence comparison function, tolerance 50%

  • C1. Bolland MJ, Grey AB, Horne AM, Briggs SE, Thomas MG, Ellis-Pegler RB, et al. Annual zoledronate increases bone density in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated human immunodeficiency virus-infected men: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:1283–1288

  • C2. Bolland MJ, Grey AB, Horne AM, Briggs SE, Thomas MG, Ellis-Pegler RB, et al. Effects of intravenous zoledronate on bone turnover and BMD persist for at least 24 months. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:1304–1308

  • C3. Bolland MJ, Grey A, Horne AM, Briggs SE, Thomas MG, Ellis-Pegler RB, et al. Effects of intravenous zoledronate on bone turnover and bone density persist for at least 5 years in HIV-infected men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:1922–1928

    Publication pair Text duplication (%)
    C1 C2 11
    C1 C3 1
    C2 C3 13
  • C4. Grey A, Bolland MJ, Wattie D, Horne A, Gamble G, Reid IR. The antiresorptive effects of a single dose of zoledronate persist for 2 years: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in osteopenic postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:538–544

  • C5. Grey A, Bolland M, Wattie D, Horne A, Gamble G, Reid IR. Prolonged anti-resorptive activity of zoledronate—a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 2010;25:2251–2255

  • C6. Grey A, Bolland MJ, Horne A, Wattie D, House M, Gamble G, et al. Five years of anti-resorptive activity after a single dose of zoledronate—results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Bone 2012;50:1389–1393

    Publication pair Text duplication (%)
    C4 C5 11
    C4 C6 4
    C5 C6 3
  • C7. Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, Gamble GD, Sharpe SJ. Effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1993;328:460–464

  • C8. Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, Gamble GD, Sharpe SJ. Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Med 1995;98:331–335

    Publication pair Text duplication (%)
    C7 C8 4
  • D9. Black DM, Delmas PD, Eastell R, Reid IR, Boonen S, Cauley JA, et al. Once-yearly zoledronic acid for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2007;356:1809–1822

  • D10. Black DM, Reid IR, Boonen S, Bucci-Rechtweg C, Cauley JA, Cosman F, et al. The effect of 3 versus 6 years of zoledronic acid treatment of osteoporosis: a randomized extension to the HORIZON-Pivotal Fracture Trial (PFT). J Bone Miner Res 2012;27:243–254

  • D11. Black DM, Reid IR, Cauley JA, Cosman F, Leung PC, Lakatos P, et al. The effect of 6 versus 9 years of zoledronic acid treatment in osteoporosis: a randomized second extension to the HORIZON-Pivotal Fracture Trial (PFT). J Bone Miner Res 2015;30:934–944

    Publication pair Text duplication (%)
    C9 C10 1
    C9 C11 2
    C10 C11 11
  • C12. McClung MR, Lewiecki EM, Cohen SB, Bolognese MA, Woodson GC, Moffett AH, et al. Denosumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med 2006;354: 821–831

  • C13. Lewiecki EM, Miller PD, McClung MR, Cohen SB, Bolognese MA, Liu Y, et al. Two-year treatment with denosumab (AMG 162) in a randomized phase 2 study of postmenopausal women with low BMD. J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1832–1841

  • C14. Miller PD, Bolognese MA, Lewiecki EM, McClung MR, Ding B, Austin M, et al. Effect of denosumab on bone density and turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass after long-term continued, discontinued, and restarting of therapy: a randomized blinded phase 2 clinical trial. Bone 2008;43:222–229

  • C15. Miller PD, Wagman RB, Peacock M, Lewiecki EM, Bolognese MA, Weinstein RL, et al. Effect of denosumab on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover: 6-year results of a phase 2 clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:394–402

  • C16. McClung MR, Lewiecki EM, Geller ML, Bolognese MA, Peacock M, Weinstein RL, et al. Effect of denosumab on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover: 8-year results of a phase 2 clinical trial. Osteoporos Int 2013;24:227–235

    Publication pair Text duplication (%)
    C12 C13 4
    C12 C14 0
    C12 C15 4
    C12 C16 1
    C13 C14 8
    C13 C15 2
    C13 C16 2
    C14 C15 4
    C14 C16 1
    C15 C16 3

Appendix D: Template Used to Detail Concerns About Pairs of Publications

Trials Appendix A number, Appendix A number

Appendix A number, submitted xx/xx/xxxx, accepted xx/xx/xxxx Citation

Appendix A number, submitted xx/xx/xxxx, accepted xx/xx/xxxx Citation

For each paper, no reference/reference to the other paper in the bibliography

Parent Study:

Conducted at institution

Number age gender strain rats (source), details of surgery or duration of adaptation

Randomized by method to number groups of number rats:

Treatment groups, intervention

Treatment duration

Endpoints reported:

List of all endpoints reported in either paper

Index paper Second paper Overlapping groups Duplicated data
Appendix A number (number groups) Appendix A number (number groups) List of groups reported in both papers In Appendix A number, for all overlapping groups:
List of variables reported in both papers
Of number variables reported for the overlapping groups in second paper, number (%) were duplicated
Proportion of data in second paper (Appendix A number) that was reported in the index paper (Appendix A number) = %
Proportion of data from the full parent study (Appendix A number or Appendix A number) that is reported in both publications (Appendix A number) and Appendix A number) =  %
Variable Group
Name Name Name Name
Name Appendix A number, Appendix A number Appendix A number, Appendix A number Appendix A number, Appendix A number Appendix A number, Appendix A number
Name Appendix A number, Appendix A number Appendix A number, Appendix A number Appendix A number, Appendix A number Appendix A number, Appendix A number
Etc     

Discrepancies and uncertainties

List of (if applicable):

Authorship concerns

Methodology discrepancies

Data concerns/discrepancies

Concern about funding support

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

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Grey, A., Avenell, A., Gamble, G. et al. Assessing and Raising Concerns About Duplicate Publication, Authorship Transgressions and Data Errors in a Body of Preclinical Research. Sci Eng Ethics 26, 2069–2096 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-019-00152-w

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-019-00152-w

Keywords

  • Duplicate publication
  • Research integrity
  • Authorship
  • Journals
  • Retraction