The Intervention of Robot Caregivers and the Cultivation of Children’s Capability to Play
- 360 Downloads
In this article, the authors examine whether and how robot caregivers can contribute to the welfare of children with various cognitive and physical impairments by expanding recreational opportunities for these children. The capabilities approach is used as a basis for informing the relevant discussion. Though important in its own right, having the opportunity to play is essential to the development of other capabilities central to human flourishing. Drawing from empirical studies, the authors show that the use of various types of robots has already helped some children with impairments. Recognizing the potential ethical pitfalls of robot caregiver intervention, however, the authors examine these concerns and conclude that an appropriately designed robot caregiver has the potential to contribute positively to the development of the capability to play while also enhancing the ability of human caregivers to understand and interact with care recipients.
KeywordsRobot ethics Robot caregivers The capability to play Disability Capabilities approach
- Bekoff, M., & Pierce, J. (2010). Wild justice: The moral lives of animals. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Faucounau, V., Wu, Y. H., Boulay, M., Maestrutti, M., & Rigaud, A. S. (2009). Caregivers’ requirements for in-home robotic agent for supporting community-living elderly subjects with cognitive impairment. Technology and Health Care, 17(1), 33–40.Google Scholar
- Heimlich, K. (2001). Animal-assisted therapy and the severely disabled child: A quantitative study, Journal of Rehabilitation. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_4_67/ai_81759719/. Accessed 19 May 2011.
- Huizinga, J. (1950). Homo ludens: A study of the play element in culture. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
- Kim, D., Hazlett, R., Godfrey, H., Rucks, G., Portee, D., & Bricout, J., et al. (2010). On the relationship between autonomy, performance, and satisfaction: Lessons from a three-week user study with post-SCI patients using a smart 6DOF assistive robotic manipulator. In 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 217–222.Google Scholar
- Mone, G. (2010). The new face of therapy, Popular Science (June), 68–93.Google Scholar
- Murphy, N. A., Christian, B., Caplin, D. A., & Young, P. C. (2006). The health of caregivers for children with disabilities: Caregiver perspectives. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(2), 180–187.Google Scholar
- Narvaez, D. (2008). Human flourishing and moral development: Cognitive science and neurobiological perspectives on virtue development. In L. Nucci & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Handbook of Moral and Character Education (pp. 310–327). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Nussbaum, M. C. (2000). Women and Human Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Nussbaum, M. C. (2006). Frontiers of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
- Poletz, L., Encarnação, P., Adams, K., & Cook, A. (2010). Robot skills and cognitive performance of preschool children. Technology and Disability, 22(3), 117–126.Google Scholar
- Prazak, B., Kronreif, G., Hochgatterer, A., & Furst, M. (2004). A toy robot for physically disabled children. Technology and Disability, 16(3), 131–136.Google Scholar
- Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
- Sharkey, A., & Sharkey, N. (2010a). Granny and the robots: Ethical issues in robot care for the elderly. Ethics and Information Technology, doi: 10.1007/s10676-010-9234-6.
- Spiegel, A. (2008). Old-fashioned play builds serious skills, NPR Morning Edition (February 21). http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=19212514. Accessed 19 May 2011.
- Stiegler, L., & Davis, R. (2011). Managing sound sensitivity in individuals with ASDs. The ASHA Leader. http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader/2011/110118/Managing-Sound-Sensitivity-in-Individuals-With-ASDs.htm. Accessed 19 May 2011.
- Turkle, S. (2011). Alone together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Vallor, S. (2011). Carebots and caregivers: Sustaining the ethical ideal of care in the twenty-first century. Philosophy & Technology (Online First). http://www.springerlink.com/content/p1v784663073q357/. Accessed 22 July 2011.
- Wright, R. J., Cohen, S., Carey, V., Weiss, S. T., & Gold, D. R. (2002). Parental stress as a predictor of wheezing in infancy: A prospective birth-cohort study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 165(3), 358–365.Google Scholar