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  1. For example, See NSPE Code of Ethics Section I., Fundamental Canons

  2. Jacobs, Association Law Handbook, 258–267

  3. National Society of Professional Engineers v. United States of America, 435 U.S. 679 (1978)

  4. For examples, see Supreme Court decisions in the American Medical Association v. Federal Trade Commission, 455 U.S. 676 (1982); Goldfarb v. Virginia Bar Association, 421 U.S. 773 (1975); Bates v. Arizona State Bar Association, 433 U.S. 350 (1977) and Mardirosian v. American Institute of Architects, 474 F.Supp. 628 (1979)

  5. For example, see NSPE Code of Ethics “Order of the U.S. District Court of the District of Columbia”

  6. Bidding is Not the Solution: Case Studies on Competitive Bidding, American Council of Engineering Companies

  7. Robbins, Building for Professional Growth, 1984

  8. Webster, The Law of Associations

  9. Reaves, The Law of Professional Licensing and Certification (Second Edition)

  10. National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying: NCEES Model Law, (2002)

  11. In re Estate of Julius Freeman, 355 N.Y. S.2d 336 (1974)

  12. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 45, Consulting Engineers: A Guide for the Engagement of Engineering Services

  13. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 73, Quality in the Constructed Project: A Guide for Owners, Designers and Constructors (Second Edition)

  14. See NSPE decision

  15. See Goldfarb, Bates, Mardirosian decisions

  16. Council on the Federal Procurement of Architectural and Engineering Services at

  17. American Bar Association, Model Procurement Code for State and Local Governments

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Correspondence to Arthur Schwartz.

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The opinions expressed in this paper are solely those of the author and are in no way or manner intended to represent the views, policies, positions, or opinions of the National Society of Professional Engineers or any of its members.

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Schwartz, A. Ethics in competitive bidding and contracting. SCI ENG ETHICS 10, 277–282 (2004).

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