Seven ways to plagiarize: Handling real allegations of research misconduct


As the research integrity officer at my university for two years, I handled eight allegations of plagiarism. These eight cases show that initial appearances can be mistaken, that policies for handling allegations of research misconduct cannot cover every contingency, and that many cases can be resolved collegially without resort to formal procedures.


  1. 1.

    Lehrer, T. (1981) Lobachevsky, in: Lehrer, T. Too Many Songs by Tom Lehrer, Pantheon Books, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Anderson, J. (1998) Plagiarism, Copyright Violation and Other Thefts of Intellectual Property: An Annotated Bibliography with a Lengthy Introduction, McFarland and Company, Jefferson, N.C.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Snapper, J.W. (2001) On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy, in: Spinello, R.A. & Tavani, H.T. (eds) Readings in Cyberethics, Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury, Mass., pp. 280–294.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Price, A. (1994) The 1993 ORI/AAAS Conference on Plagiarism and Theft of Ideas. Journal of Information Ethics 3: 54–63.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kock, N. (1999), A case of academic plagiarism. Communications of the ACM 42: 96–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Rhoades, L.J. (2000) The American experience: lessons learned. Science and Engineering Ethics 6: 95–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Anderson, C. (1993) Michigan gets an expensive lesson. Science 262 (5130): 23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Federal Register, October 14, 1999

  9. 9.

    Bird, S.J., & Dustira, A.K. (2000) New common federal definition of research misconduct in the United States. Science and Engineering Ethics 6: 123–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Parrish, D. (1995) Scientific misconduct and the plagiarism cases. Journal of College and University Law 21: 517–554.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    McCutchen, C.W. (1994) Plagiarism: a tale of telltale words. Journal of Information Ethics 3: 48–50.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Bebeau, M.J. (1995) Moral Reasoning in Scientific Research: Cases for Teaching and Assessment, Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    LaFollette, M.C. (1992) Stealing into Print: Fraud, Plagiarism, and Misconduct in Scientific Publishing, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Gilbert, W.S., and Sullivan, A. (1878) H.M.S. Pinafore, Or the Lass that Loved a Sailor.

  15. 15.

    Gunsalus, C.K. (1998), Preventing the need for whistleblowing: practical advice for university administrators. Science and Engineering Ethics 4: 75–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael C. Loui.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Loui, M.C. Seven ways to plagiarize: Handling real allegations of research misconduct. SCI ENG ETHICS 8, 529–539 (2002).

Download citation


  • plagiarism
  • research misconduct
  • research integrity officer