Skip to main content

Effect of Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity on the Extraction of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Blackberries (Rubus spp.): Scale-Up Extraction


The phenolic compounds of blackberries extracted with organic solvents cause environmental damage. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to verify if microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity obtain a blackberry extract with a high concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity without the addition of any solvent. The results showed that it was possible to reach the objective with 500 W and 10 min of extraction by employing a method that meets green chemistry principles. The extract has a lower cost than the exhaustive method, is microbiologically safe, and is mainly composed of anthocyanins (85%). The presence of 5 anthocyanins and 17 non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds were identified, including hydroxyresveratrol, which was first extracted in blackberries by microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity. The phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were lower in the last fractions, which reduced the extraction time to 8 min. The coproduct showed phenolic, antioxidant capacity, and microbiological quality. This study presented a fast, efficient, economical, sustainable, and solvent-free method to extract phenolic compounds from blackberries.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Data Availability

Not applicable.


Download references


This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brazil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001. Embrapa Clima Temperado donated the blackberry fruit. Capes notices 24/2012 and 11/2009 - Pro-institutional equipment financed the purchase of equipment used in this study. We would like to thank teachers Dr. Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares, Dr. Antonio Segura Carretero, Dr. Nilo Zanatta, and Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes for granting us the necessary infrastructure to carry out analyses with C. elegans, the identification of anthocyanins, the identification of non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds, and microbiological analyses and Naiara Henning Neuenfeldt for helping with the microbiological analyses.


The study was supported by the FAPERGS Project N. 17/2551-0000780-8 (Edital 01/2017-ARD) and PROBIC/FAPERGS/UFSM (Edital 007/2018), Fipe Program"Enxoval" CCR (Edital 014/2017, Edital 015/2017, and Edital 002/2018 PRPGP/UFSM).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Milene T. Barcia.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Code Availability

Not applicable.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Moraes, D.P., Machado, M.L., Farias, C.A.A. et al. Effect of Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity on the Extraction of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Blackberries (Rubus spp.): Scale-Up Extraction. Food Bioprocess Technol 13, 2200–2216 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Green extraction
  • Microbiological analysis
  • Economic analysis
  • Hydroxyresveratrol
  • Antioxidant capacity
  • Reactive oxygen species