Influence of Inlet Drying Air Temperature and Milk Flow Rate on the Physical, Optical and Thermal Properties of Spray-Dried Camel Milk Powders
- 309 Downloads
The influence of milk flow rate and inlet drying air temperature on the physical, optical and thermal properties of laboratory spray-dried camel milk powders is investigated. The physical, thermal and optical properties of laboratory spray-dried camel milk powders at three inlet drying air temperatures (110, 120 and 130 °C) and two milk flow rates (166 and 248 cm3/h) were evaluated. These properties are fundamental to understanding the quality, stability, final application and portability of the milk powders. Following this, the results were compared to commercial milk powder (CMM). Specifically, we evaluated the influence of the inlet drying air temperatures and feed rates on the reconstitution properties, particle properties, bulk, colour and thermal properties. Using response surface methodology (RSM), the findings indicated that the inlet drying air temperatures significantly influenced moisture content, and the L* a* b* colour properties (p < 0.0001) of the powders. However, the bulk and reconstitution properties were significantly influenced by the milk flow rate (p < 0.0001). The thermograms of all the milk powders had three endothermic peaks and two shifts. The onset of the glass transition increased in temperature with decreasing moisture content of the powders varying from 37.49 to 44.21 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the laboratory spray dried powders were hollow and collapsed compared with the commercial samples which were spherical and rough with small cracks, dents and pores. The results demonstrated that both the inlet drying air temperature and the milk flow rate influenced the thermal, optical and physical properties of laboratory spray-dried powders.
KeywordsCamel milk powder Spray drying Physical properties Colour properties Thermal properties
The first author, Jackline Akinyi Ogolla would wish to acknowledge Katholische Akademische Ausländer-Dienst (KAAD) for her research stay in Germany. This study is part of Global food supply (GlobE) project – RELOAD (FKZ 031A247 A) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the RE4Foods project (EP/L002531/1) funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), UK. The authors gratefully acknowledge their financial contributions. The authors further wish to thank Dr. Helen McKee for proofreading the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Abu-Lehia, I. H., Al-Mohizea, I. S., & El-Behry, M. (1989). Studies on the production of ice cream from camel milk products. The Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 44, 31–34.Google Scholar
- Agrawal, R. P., Jain, S., Shah, S., Chopra, A., & Agarwal, V. (2011). Effect of camel milk on glycemic control and insulin requirement in patients with type 1 diabetes: 2-years randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(10), 1048–1052. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Saadi, J., & Deeth, H. C. (2008). Cross-linking of proteins and other changes in UHT milk during storage at different temperatures. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 63(3), 93–99.Google Scholar
- Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V., Enrique Ortega-Rivas, Pablo Juliano, and Hong Yan. 2005. Food powders: physical properties, processing, and functionality. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.102308.124155, 1, 1, 211, 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Benkerroum, N., Mekkaoui, M., Bennani, N., & Hidane, K. (2004). Antimicrobial activity of camel’s milk against pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 57(1). Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111)), 39–43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2004.00127.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bruns, R. E., Scarminio, I. S., & de Barros Neto, B. (2006). Statistical design--chemometrics, 25.Google Scholar
- Chegini, G., & Taheri, M. (2013). Whey powder: process technology and physical properties: a review. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 13(10), 1377–1387. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.13.10.1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Daza, L. D., Fujita, A., Fávaro-Trindade, C. S., Rodrigues-Ract, J. N., Granato, D., & Genovese, M. I. (2016). Effect of spray drying conditions on the physical properties of Cagaita (Eugenia Dysenterica DC.) fruit extracts. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 97, 20–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2015.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Farah, Z. (1996). Camel milk: properties and products. Camel milk properties and products. Zurich, Switzerland: Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in technology and management.Google Scholar
- Farah, Z., Streiff, T., & Bachmann, M. R. M. R. (1989). Manufacture and characterization of camel milk butter. Milchwissenschaft, 44(7). Volkswirtschaftlicher Verlag, etc.), 412–414.Google Scholar
- Ferreira, S. L. C. L. C., Bruns, R. E. E., Ferreira, H. S. S., Matos, G. D. D., David, J. M. M., Brandão, G. C. C., Da Silva, E. G. P. G. P., et al. (2007). Box-Behnken design: an alternative for the optimization of analytical methods. Analytica Chimica Acta, 597(2), 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2007.07.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fitzpatrick, J. J., Iqbal, T., Delaney, C., Twomey, T., & Keogh, M. K. (2004). Effect of powder properties and storage conditions on the flowability of milk powders with different fat contents. Journal of Food Engineering, 64(4), 435–444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Islam, M. A., Alam, M. R., & Obaidullah, H. M. (2012). Multiresponse optimization based on statistical response surface methodology and desirability function for the production of particleboard. Composites Part B Engineering, 43(3), 861–868. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.11.033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kelly, A.L., O’Connell, J.E., & Fox, P.F. (2003). Manufacture and properties of milk powders. In: Fox, P.F., McSweeney, P.L.H. (eds) Advanced Dairy Chemistry—1 Proteins. Boston, MA: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8602-3_29.
- Khaskheli, M., Arain, M. A., Chaudhry, S., Soomro, A. H., & Qureshi, T. A. (2005). Physico-chemical quality of camel milk. Journal of Agriculture & Social Sciences, 1(2), 164–166.Google Scholar
- Kherouatou, N., Nasri, M., Attia, H., Frederico, V., Lafise, J., Taniwaki, I. T. A. L., Marta, H., & Terra, N. (2003). A study of the dromedary milk casein micelle and its changes during acidification. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 6, 237–244. https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:2000141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim, E. H.-J., Chen, X. D., & Pearce, D. (2002). Surface characterization of four industrial spray-dried dairy powders in relation to chemical composition, structure and wetting property. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 26(3), 197–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7765(01)00334-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mehaia, M. A. (2006). Manufacture of fresh soft white cheese (Domiati type) from dromedary camel’s milk using ultrafiltration process. Journal of Food Technology, 4(3), 206–212.Google Scholar
- Ogolla, J. A., Dede, C., Okoth, M. W., Hensel, O., & Sturm, B. (2017). Strategies and technologies for camel milk preservation and utilization of non-marketed milk in arid and semi-arid areas. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal., 82(2-4), 144–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/00128325.2017.1363686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oldfield, D., & Singh, H. (2005). Functional properties of milk powders. In In food science and technology (Vol. 146, p. 365). New York-Marcel: Dekker.Google Scholar
- Pisecky, J. (2012). Handbook of milk powder manufacture. Edited by Vagn Westergaard and Ejnar Refstrup. GEA Process Engineering A/S (GEA Niro). Second Edi. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-908517-43-2.
- Quana, S., Tsuda, H., & Miyamoto, T. (2008). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in skim milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus 130B4 from camel milk in Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88(15), 2688–2692. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reddy, R. S., Ramachandra, C. T., Hiregoudar, S., Nidoni, U., Ram, J., & Kammar, M. (2014). Influence of processing conditions on functional and reconstitution properties of milk powder made from Osmanabadi goat milk by spray drying. Small Ruminant Research, 119(1–3), 130–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.01.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Roos, Y. H. (2010). Glass transition temperature and its relevance in food processing. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology - (New in 2010), 1(1), 469–496. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.102308.124139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rüegg, M., & Farah, Z. (1991). Melting curves of camel milk fat. Milchwissenschaft - Milk Science International, 46(5), 361–362.Google Scholar
- Schuck, P. (2011). Dehydrated dairy products | milk powder: physical and functional properties of milk powders. In Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (pp. 117–124). New York City: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374407-4.00122-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sulieman, A. M. E., Elamin, O. M., Elkhalifa, E. A., & Laleye, L. (2014). Comparison of physicochemical properties of spray-dried camel’s milk and cow’s milk powder. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 4(1), 15–19. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.food.20140401.03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tuohy, J. J. (1989). Some physical properties of milk powders. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 13(2), 141–152.Google Scholar
- Walstra, P., Wouters, J. T. M., & Geurts, T. J. (2006). Dairy science and technology second edition. Food Science and Technology. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
- Westergaard, V. (2004). Milk powder technology evaporation and spray drying GEA process engineering engineering for a better world preface to fifth edition.Google Scholar
- Zbikowska, A., & Zbikowski, Z. (2006). Stability of milk concentrates in hot coffee. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 15/56(S1), 253–258.Google Scholar